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Dipsas peruana (BOETTGER, 1898)

IUCN Red List - Dipsas peruana - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesPeru Snail-eater
Many-scaled Snail-eater (polylepis)
Striped Snail-eater (latifasciata)
Venezuela Snail-eater (latifrontalis)
Boettger's Snail-eater (boettgeri) 
SynonymLeptognathus peruana BOETTGER 1898: 128
Leptognathus boettgeri WERNER 1901:11
Leptognathus latifrontalis BOULENGER 1905: 561
Leptognathus boliviana WERNER 1909: 240
Leptognathus palmeri BOULENGER 1912: 422
Leptognathus polylepis BOULENGER 1912: 422
Leptognathus latifasciatus BOULENGER, 1913: 72
Sibynomorphus peruanus — BARBOUR & NOBLE 1920:620
S.[ibynomorphus] bolivianus — Amaral, 1923:93
Sibynomorphus latifasciatus — Dunn, 1923:187
Sibynomorphus mikanii — AMARAL 1925:9 (in part)
Sibynomorphus mikanii peruanus — AMARAL 1930a:31 (in part)
Sibynomorphus latifrontalis — AMARAL 1930c:197
Sibynomorphus palmeri — AMARAL 1930c:199
Tropidodipsas polylepis — AMARAL 1930a:31
Dipsas palmeri — PARKER 1934:271
Dipsas latifrontalis — PETERS 1960:103 (in part)
Dipsas polylepis - PETERS 1960: 96
Dipsas boettgeri - PETERS 1960: 98
Dipsas latifasciata - PETERS 1960: 100
Dipsas peruana - PETERS 1960: 110
Dipsas peruana — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970:89
Dipsas latifrontalis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 88
Dipsas mikanii peruanus - SCHMIDT & WALKER 1943: 288
Dipsas latifrontalis — KORNACKER 1999: 79
Dipsas latifrontalis — CADLE 2005
Dipsas latifasciata — CADLE 2005
Dipsas peruana — RIVAS et al. 2012
Dipsas peruana — WALLACH et al. 2014: 233
Dipsas latifrontalis — NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015: 129 
DistributionSE Peru (Amazonas, Cajamarca, Pasco, Puno, Loreto, Cusco), Colombia (Boyaca), Ecuador; elevation 1700-2100 m

Type locality: Santa Ana, Cuzco Province, Peru

boettgeri: S Peru, N Bolivia; Type locality: Chanchamayo, Peru.

Leptognathus boliviana: Bolivia; Type locality: “Beni River, Bolivia”;

latifrontalis: Venezuela (Lara, Aragua, Carabobo, Distrito Federal, Miranda, Vargas), S Ecuador, Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)]; Type locality: Aricagua, Edo. Mérida, Venezuela.

polylepis: Peru; Type locality: Huancabamba, Peru, elevation above 3000 ft.

latifasciata: N Peru, S Ecuador; Type locality: Upper Marañon, Eastern Peru Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: SMF 20801, female
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.2078 (polylepis)
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.2077 [latifasciatus]
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.20.98, adult female [latifrontalis]
Holotype: ZMH [Leptognathus boliviana] 
CommentDiagnosis: HARVEY & EMBERT 2009.

Synonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and HARVEY & EMBERT 2008. Amaral (1929) synonymized L. praeornata Werner, 1909, from Venezuela, with Sibynomorphus incertus. Fernandes et al. (2002) synonymized D. latifasciata with D. polylepis. Harvey and Embert (2009) resurrected the name D. praeornata for the Venezuelan coastal range population and relegated D. latifrontalis to a synonym of D. peruana.

Distribution: peruana not in Venezuela but latifrontalis is (Luis Esqueda, pers. comm., 21 April 2016, see Natera-Mumaw et al. 2015 for details). 
EtymologyD. peruana has been named after its type locality, D. boettgeri after Oskar Boettger (1844-1910), herpetologist at the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main. 
References
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. 1898. Katalog der Reptilien-Sammlung im Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt/M. 2.Teil (Schlangen). Frankfurt/M (Gebr. Knauer), i-ix + 1-160. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1905. Description of a new snake from Venezuela. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7) 15 (90): 561 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1912. Descriptions of new reptiles from the Andes of South America, preserved in the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 10: 420-424 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G. A. 1913. Description of a new snake discovered by Mr. A. E. Pratt in eastern Peru. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 12: 72 - get paper here
  • Cadle, J. E. 2005. SYSTEMATICS OF SNAKES OF THE DIPSAS OREAS COMPLEX (COLUBRIDAE: DIPSADINAE) IN WESTERN ECUADOR AND PERU, WITH REVALIDATION OF D. ELEGANS (BOULENGER) AND D. ELLIPSIFERA (BOULENGER). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 158 (3): 67-136
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Esqueda,L.F. & La Marca,E. 1999. New Reptilian species records from the Cordillera de Mérida, Andes of Venezuela. Herpetological Review 30 (4): 238-240 - get paper here
  • Fernandes, R.; Fernandes, D.S. & Passos, P. 2002. Leptognathus latifasciatus BOULENGER 1913, a junior synonym of Dipsas polylepis (BOULENGER 1912) (Serpentes, Colubridae). Bol. Mus. Nac (n.s.) Rio de Janeiro (493): 1-7 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B. 2008. New and Poorly Known Dipsas (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Northern South America. Herpetologica 64 (4): 422-451 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B. and Dirk Embert 2009. Review of Bolivian Dipsas (Serpentes: Colubridae), with Comments on Other South American Species. Herpetological Monographs 22 (1): 54-105 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B.; Gilson Rivas Fuenmayor, José Rances Caicedo-Portilla, and José Vicente Rueda-Almonacid 2009. Systematics of the Enigmatic Dipsadine Snake Tropidodipsas perijanensis Alemán (Serpentes: Colubridae) and Review of Morphological Characters of Dipsadini. Herpetological Monographs 22 (1): 106-132 - get paper here
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Manzanilla, Jesús, Enrique La Marca and Luis Felipe Esqueda 2001. Geographic distribution. Dipsas latifrontalis. Herpetological Review 32 (3):195 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of the subfamily Dipsadinae. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan (114): 224 pp. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Schmidt,K.P. & WALKER Jr. ,W.F. 1943. Snakes of the Peruvian coastal region. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. nat. Hist., Chicago, 24: 297-327 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, FRANZ 1901. Reptilien und Batrachier aus Peru und Bolivien. Abhandl. Ber. Zool. Anthrop. Mus. Dresden, 9 (2): 1-14 [1900]
  • Werner,F. 1909. Über neue oder seltene Reptilien des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. Jahrb. Hamb. wiss. Anst. suppl. 2 (Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hamb. 1908) 26: 205-247 - get paper here
 
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