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Dipsas pratti (BOULENGER, 1897)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Pratt's Snail-eater 
SynonymLeptognathus pratti BOULENGER 1897: 523
Leptognathus triseriatus COPE 1899: 309
Leptognathus nigriceps WERNER 1916: 310
Leptognathus nigriceps — WERNER 1924: 46
Dipsas niceforoi PRADO 1940: 14
Dipsas tolimensis PRADO 1941: 345
Dipsas pratti — PETERS 1960: 112
Dipsas pratti — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 89
Dipsas pratti — HARVEY 2008
Dipsas pratti — WALLACH et al. 2014: 234
Dipsas cf. pratti — ACUÑA-VARGAS 2016 
DistributionColombia (Antioquia, Santander, Bolívar, Valle del Cauca), Venezuela (Zulia)

Type locality: Medellin, Colombia  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.20.52, formerly (BARROS et al. 2012)
Holotype: AMNH 17525 [Leptognathus triseriatus]
Holotype: MLS 165 [Dipsas niceforoi] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Dipsas pratti is a robust snake of the tribe Dipsadini defined by the following characters: (1) dorsal scale rows 15 – 15 – 15; (2) temporals excluded from the orbit by postoculars; (3) two pairs of infralabials in contact behind the mental; (4) infralabials broadly contacting first and second pairs of chinshields, sublabials separating infralabials from preventrals and ventrals; (5) loreal variable, though more specimens exhibit loreals that are longer than high or slightly square and occasionally higher than long ,entering orbit; (6) preocular present above loreal, excluding prefrontal from orbit; (7) dorsal surface of head uniform brown in adults, young specimens with some yellow marks on the cephalic scales; (8) labial scales heavily pigmented yellow both in adults and juveniles, young specimens with a narrow yellow bar extending from behind the eyes to the last supralabials; (9) nuchal collar absent in adults, but present in young specimens; (10) usually fewer than 30 bands with or without lighter centers but rarely resembling paired ellipses, first band without contacting parietals; (11) bands complete in young specimens, however in adults and old specimens only the faint narrow yellow line can be observed on either side of the diffuse bands; (12) interspaces brown but lighter than the bands; (13) venter uniform grey brown; (14) ventrals, excluding preventrals, 175 – 181 in males, 167 – 176 in females; (15) subcaudals 75 – 81 in males, 62 – 75 in females, although Harvey (2008) reports 60 – 89 for the species; (16) maxillary teeth more than 15 [see Tables 1 – 2 as well as descriptions of D. pratti in Harvey (2008) and Harvey & Embert (2008)] [from BARROS et al. 2012]. 
CommentSynonymy mostly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Four species of Dipsas were described (by Cope 1899; Prado 1940, 1941; Werner 1916) and were found to be juveniles of D. pratti (the differences reported only reflected ontogenetic changes, Peters 1960).

Conservation: known from only 13 specimens (including the holotype) [BARROS et al. 2012].

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018).

Similar species: D. sanctijoannis; the D. pratti specimen (MHUA 14278) cited by Daza et al. (2009, 2010) and Pyron et al. (2011) is D. sanctijoannis (J. M. Daza, pers. comm., cited in Barros et al. 2012) 
EtymologyNamed after Antwerp Edgar Pratt (ca. 1850-ca. 1920), an explorer and naturalist, as were his sons, Felix and Charles. 
  • Acuña-Vargas, J. C. 2016. Anfibios y Reptiles asociados a cinco coberturas de la tierra, municipio de Dibulla, La Guajira, Colombia. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n. s.), 32(2): 133-146 - get paper here
  • Barros, Tito R.; Robert C. Jadin, José Rances Caicedo-Portilla and Gilson A. Rivas 2012. Discovery of a rare snail-eater snake in Venezuela (Dipsadinae, Dipsas pratti), with additions to its natural history and morphology. Zoosyst. Evol. 88 (1) , 125–134 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1897. Description of a new snake from the Andes of Colombia. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 20 (120): 523 - get paper here
  • Carvajal-Cogollo, J.E.; L.E. Rojas-Murcia. & G. Cárdenas-Arévalo 2020. Reptiles del Caribe colombiano/ Reptiles of the Colombian Caribbean. Tunja: Editorial UPTC, 268 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1899. Contributions to the herpetology of New Granada and Argentina, with descriptions of new forms. Philadelphia Mus. Sci. Bull. (1): 1-19 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B. 2008. New and Poorly Known Dipsas (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Northern South America. Herpetologica 64 (4): 422-451 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B. and Dirk Embert 2008. Review of Bolivian Dipsas (Serpentes: Colubridae), with Comments on Other South American Species. Herpetological Monographs 22 (1): 54-105 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B.; Gilson Rivas Fuenmayor, José Rances Caicedo-Portilla, and José Vicente Rueda-Almonacid 2009. Systematics of the Enigmatic Dipsadine Snake Tropidodipsas perijanensis Alemán (Serpentes: Colubridae) and Review of Morphological Characters of Dipsadini. Herpetological Monographs 22 (1): 106-132 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Páez, V.P. et al. 2002. Guía de campo de algunas especies de anfibios y reptiles de Antioquia. Universidad de Antioquia, - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of the subfamily Dipsadinae. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan (114): 224 pp. - get paper here
  • Prado, A. 1941. Algumas serpentes Colombianas, com a descriçao de uma nova especie do genero Dipsas. Ciencias, México, 2: 345
  • Prado, Alcides 1942. Notas ofiológicas 13. redescripção de duas serpentes colombianas. Memorias do Instituto Butantan 16: 1-3 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1924. Neue oder wenig bekannte Schlangen aus dem Naturhistorischen Staatsmuseum in Wien. l. Teil. Sitzungsb. Ber. Akad. Wiss., Wien, Abt. l, 133: 29 - 56 - get paper here
  • Werner,F. 1916. Bemerkungen über einige niedere Wirbeltiere der Anden von Kolumbien mit Beschreibungen neuer Arten. Zool. Anz. 47: 301-311 - get paper here
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