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Dipsosaurus dorsalis (BAIRD & GIRARD, 1852)

IUCN Red List - Dipsosaurus dorsalis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaIguanidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesDipsosaurus dorsalis catalinensis VAN DENBURGH 1922
Dipsosaurus dorsalis dorsalis (BAIRD & GIRARD 1852)
Dipsosaurus dorsalis lucasensis VAN DENBURGH 1920
Dipsosaurus dorsalis sonoriensis ALLEN 1933 
Common NamesDesert Iguana
dorsalis: Northern Desert Iguana 
SynonymCrotaphytus dorsalis BAIRD & GIRARD 1852
Dipso-saurus dorsalis - HALLOWELL 1854
Dipsosaurus dorsalis — BOULENGER 1885: 201
Dipsosaurus dorsalis - SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Dipsosaurus dorsalis — LINER 1994
Dipsosaurus dorsalis carmenensis VAN DENBURGH 1922
Dipsosaurus carmenensis VAN DENBURGH 1922
Dipsosaurus dorsalis carmenensis — SAVAGE & CLIFF 1954
Dipsosaurus dorsalis — STEBBINS 1985: 114
Dipsosaurus dorsalis carmenensis — HULSE 1992

Dipsosaurus dorsalis dorsalis (BAIRD & GIRARD 1852)
Dipsosaurus dorsalis dorsalis - VAN DENBURGH 1920
Dipsosaurus dorsalis dorsalis — HULSE 1992
Dipsosaurus dorsalis dorsalis — CROTHER 2000

Dipsosaurus dorsalis catalinensis VAN DENBURGH 1922
Dipsosaurus catalinensis VAN DENBURGH 1922
Dipsosaurus dorsalis catalinensis - SOULÉ & SLOAN 1966
Dipsosaurus dorsalis catalinensis — HULSE 1992
Dipsosaurus catalinensis — GRISMER 1999
Dipsosaurus catalinensis — GRISMER 2002
Dipsosaurus catalinensis — LOVICH et al. 2009
Dipsosaurus catalinensis — JONES & LOVICH 2009

Dipsosaurus dorsalis lucasensis VAN DENBURGH 1920
Dipsosaurus dorsalis lucasensis VAN DENBURGH 1920
Dipsosaurus carmenensis VAN DENBURGH 1922
Dipsosaurus carmenensis — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Dipsosaurus dorsalis lucasensis — LEVITON & BANTA 1964
Dipsosaurus dorsalis lucasensis - SOULÉ & SLOAN 1966
Dipsosaurus dorsalis lucasensis — HULSE 1992

Dipsosaurus dorsalis sonoriensis ALLEN 1933
Dipsosaurus dorsalis sonoriensis ALLEN 1933: 4
Dipsosaurus dorsalis sonoriensis — TAYLOR 1938: 480
Dipsosaurus dorsalis sonoriensis — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 79
Dipsosaurus dorsalis sonoriensis — HULSE 1992 
DistributionUSA (SE California, S Nevada, W Arizona, SW Utah),
Mexico (Baja California, W Sonora, NW Sinaloa)

Type locality: Desert of Colorado, California. Restricted to Winterhaven = Fort Yuma), Imperial County, by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 78.

carmenensis: endemic to Isla Carmen, Gulf of California. Type locality: 'Near PuertoBellandro,CarmenIsland,GulfofCalifornia,Mexico."

catalinensis: endemic to Santa Catalina, Baja California. Type locality: “Santa Catalina Island, Gulf of California [Baja California Sur], Mexico.”

lucasensis: Mexico (Baja California); Type locality: San Jose de Cabo, Baja California, Mexico.

sonoriensis: Mexico (Sonora); Type locality: 8.1 km SE Hermosilio. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: USNM 2699
Holotype: CAS 50504 [carmenensis]
Holotype: CAS 50505 [catalinensis]
Holotype: CAS 46090 [lucasensis]
Holotype: UMMZ 72121 [sonoriensis] 
CommentThe separation of D. d. carmenensis is based only on a higher average number of femoral pores (43.1 vs. 37.5); GRISMER (1999) therefore synonymized it with D. dorsalis. GRISMER (1999) also elevated catalinensis to full (evolutionary) species status because it is the only Dipsosuaurs “in which the entire gular region is heavily suffused in dark brown. In all other populations, the gular region is either lightly streaked with gray or has a dark brown central area from which radiate darker streaks”. Hulse (1992) erroneously figured catalinensis as occurring on Isla San José.

Type species: Crotaphytus dorsalis BAIRD & GIRARD 1852 is the type species of the genus Dipsosaurus HALLOWELL 1854. 
References
  • Alberts, A.C.; Carter, R.L.; Hayes, W.K. & Martins, E.P. (eds.) 2004. Iguanas - Biology and Conservation. University of California Press, 356 pp.
  • Avery, D. F.;Tanner, W. W. 1971. Evolution of the iguanine lizards (Sauria, Iguanidae) as determined by osteological and myological characters. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin 12 (3): 1-79
  • Baird,S.F. and Girard,C. 1852. Characteristics of some new reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, part 2. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 6: 125-129 - get paper here
  • Blackburn, D.G. 1994. Standardized criteria for the recognition of embryonic nutritional patterns in squamate reptiles. Copeia 1994 (4): 925-935 - get paper here
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burré, G. 2002. Begegnungen mit Iguaniden im Südwesten der USA. Iguana Rundschreiben 15 (2): 13-21
  • Burt, Charles E. 1933. Some lizards from the Great Basin of the West and adjacent areas, with comments on the status of various forms. American Midland Naturalist 14: 228-250 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Goldberg, Stephen R. 2013. Dipsosaurus dorsalis (desert iguana) reproduction Baja California Sur. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 322-323
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 1999. An evolutionary classification of reptiles on islands in the Gulf of California, México. Herpetologica 55 (4): 446-469 - get paper here
  • Haase, Klaus. 2013. Der Wüstenleguan Dipsosaurus dorsalis (Baird & Girard, 1852) - Haltung und Zucht im Terrarium. Sauria 35 (4): 23-29 - get paper here
  • Hulse, Arthur C. 1988. Bibliography of Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (74): 1-25 - get paper here
  • Hulse, Arthur C. 1992. Dipsosaurus, D. dorsalis. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (542): 1-6 - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Kreutz, R. 2006. Bau und Betrieb eines Gewächshauses für die Haltung von Echsen. Draco 7 (26): 79-83 - get paper here
  • Langerwerf, B. 2009. Wüstenleguane (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) und ihre Vermehrung im Terrarium. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (78): 69-72 - get paper here
  • Langerwerf, B. 2010. Captive Care and Breeding of the Desert Iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Reptilia (GB) (69): 31-34 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Banta, Benjamin H. 1964. Midwinter reconnaissance of the herpetofauna of the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 30 (7): 127-156 - get paper here
  • Lovich, R.E.; Grismer, L.L. & Danemann, G. 2009. CONSERVATION STATUS OF THE HERPETOFAUNA OF BAJA CALIFORNIA, MÉXICO AND ASSOCIATED ISLANDS IN THE SEA OF CORTEZ AND PACIFIC OCEAN. Herp. Cons. Biol. 4 (3):358-378 - get paper here
  • Parker, W. S. 1972. Notes on Dipsosaurus dorsalis in Arizona. Herpetologica 28 (3): 226-229 - get paper here
  • Pianka, Eric R. 1971. Comparative ecology of two lizards. Copeia 1971 (1): 129-138 - get paper here
  • Pianka, Eric R. 1973. The structure of lizard communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 53-74 - get paper here
  • Savage, Jay M.; Cliff, Frank S. 1954. A new snake, Phyllorhynchus arenicola, from the Gulf of California, Mexico. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 67: 69-76 - get paper here
  • Slevin, Joseph R.;Leviton, Alan E. 1956. Holotype specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 28 (14): 529-560 - get paper here
  • Soulé, Michael & Sloan, Allen J. 1966. Biogeography and distribution of the reptiles and amphibians on islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 14 (11): 137-156 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stejneger,L.H. 1893. Annotated list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, with descriptions of new species. North American Fauna, No. 7: 159-228 (+ 14 plates + 4 maps) - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward Harrison 1938. Notes on the herpetological fauna of the Mexican state of Sonora. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 24 (19): 475-503 [1936] - get paper here
  • Tevis, lloyd, Jr. 1944. Herpetological notes from lower California. Copeia 1944 (1): 6-18 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh, John 1922. The Reptiles of Western North America. Volume I. Lizards and Volume II. Snakes and Turtles. Occ. Pap. Cal. Acad. Sci. (10): 1–612; 613-1028 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh, John and Joseph R. Slevin 1920. Description of a new lizard (Dipsosaurus dorsalis lucasensis ) from Lower California. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 10 (4): 33-34 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Werning, H.; Scherer, D. & Barkam, L. 2003. Nachzucht des Wüstenleguans Dipsosaurus dorsalis (BAIRD & GIRARD 1852) bis zur F2-Generation. Salamandra 38 (4): 213-232 [2002]
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
  • Werning, Heiko 2014. Leguane im „Wilden Westen“. Terraria Elaphe 2014 (2): 16-25
  • Woodbury, Angus M.;Hardy, Ross 1940. Northern crested lizard collected in Utah. Copeia 1940 (3): 205 - get paper here
 
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