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Drymarchon corais (BOIE, 1827)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesDrymarchon corais corais (BOIE 1827)
Drymarchon corais orizabensis (DUGÈS 1905)
Drymarchon corais rubidus SMITH 1941
Drymarchon corais unicolor SMITH 1941 
Common NamesE: Indigo Snake
corais: Western Indigo Snake
erebennus: Texas Indigo Snake
G: Indigonatter 
SynonymDrymarchon corais corais (BOIE 1827)
Coluber corais BOIE 1827: 537
Spilotes corais — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 223 (?)
Geoptyas collaris STEINDACHNER 1867: 271 (fide BOULENGER 1894)
Geoptyas flaviventris STEINDACHNER 1867
Coluber corais - BOULENGER 1894
Drymarchon corais corais - STEJNEGER 1899
Phrynonax angulifer WERNER 1923
Drymarchon corais corais — AMARAL 1929
Drymarchon corais cleofae BROCK 1942
Drymarchon corais corais - CEI 1993
Drymarchon corais corais — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Drymarchon corais corais — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Drymarchon corais corais — BOOS 2001

Drymarchon corais orizabensis (DUGÈS 1905)
Morenoa orizabensis DUGÈS 1905
Drymarchon corais orizabensis — SMITH 1941: 477
Drymarchon corais orizabensis — MCCRANIE 1980

Drymarchon corais rubidus SMITH 1941
Drymarchon corais cleofae BROCK 1942: 249
Drymarchon corais rubidus — HALL 1951
Drymarchon corais rubidus — DAVIS & SMITH 1953
Drymarchon corais rubidus — ZWEIFEL & NORRIS 1955
Drymarchon corais rubidus — ZWEIFEL 1959
Drymarchon corais rubidus — MCCRANIE 1980
Drymarchon corais rubidus — WEBB 1984
Drymarchon melanurus rubidus — WÜSTER et al. 2001 (provisionally)
Drymarchon corais rubidus — KÖHLER 2008

Drymarchon corais unicolor SMITH 1941
Drymarchon corais unicolor SMITH 1941: 470
Dryma63rchon corais unicolor — MERTENS 1952:
Drymarchon corais unicolor — MCCRANIE 1980
Drymarchon melanurus unicolor — WÜSTER et al. 2001 (provisionally)
Drymarchon corais unicolor — KÖHLER 2008 
DistributionUSA (Texas, Florida ?),
Mexico (Yucatan, Aguascalientes, Tamaulipas, Morelos), Guatemala, Honduras (Islas de la Bahia, Isla de Utila: [HR 31: 255]), Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, Trinidad, Tobago, French Guiana,
Colombia, Venezuela (Mérida), Brazil (Amapá, Rondonia, Roraima, Goias), Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, N Argentina (Chaco, Formosa), Paraguay (LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999)

elevation; 0-1555 m (Honduras)

corais: Mexico; Type-locality: "America."

orizabensis: Mexico (Veracruz); Type locality: "d'Orizaba (Etat de Vera-Cruz).”

rubidus: Mexico (Michoacan, Sinaloa, Chiapas, Morelos); Type locality: Rosario,Sinaloa.

unicolor: along the Pacific in Mexico (Chiapas), Guatemala, El Salvador, SW Honduras, Nicaragua, NW Costa Rica; Type locality, "La Esperanza, near Escuintla, Chiapas," Mexico. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: non designated [McCranie 1980]
Holotype: CAS-SUR 9447 [rubidus]
Syntypes: U.S. National Museum USNM 1862, a skin (Cochran, 1961), collected by A. Schott, and Academy Natural Sciences Philadelphia (ANSP) 3921, young adult female, collected by A. Schott, dates not given [erebennus]
Lectotype, unnumbered, in Alfredo Duges Museum, Guanajuato, Mexico, designated by Smith and Necker (1943:206 [orizabensis]
Holotype: USNM 110865, adult female, collected by H. M. Smith, 18 May 1940. 
CommentType species: Coluber corais BOIE 1827 (DAUDIN ?) is the type species of the genus Coluber FITZINGER 1843: 26.

Synonymy partly that of CEI 1993.

Subspecies: Drymarchon corais margaritae and D. c. couperi have been elevated to full species status. Other subspecies and populations (e.g. from Costa Rica) have been assigned to D. melanurus (see comment there) which has been considered as a subspecies of D. corais previously.

“In Central America, Smith (1941) noted the existence of hybrid zones between melanurus on one hand and the taxa erebennus, orizabensis and rubidus on the other. Additionally, juveniles and some adults of erebennus, rubidus and unicolor display oblique dark bars on the sides of the neck, which appear to be homologous with the marks seen in D. melanurus (no orizabensis were examined). Although the sister taxon to Drymarchon is unresolved, these dark marks appear to be unique to these taxa, and can therefore be regarded as a synapomorphy for these populations. This makes the classification of the taxa erebennus Cope, 1860, rubidus Smith, 1941, unicolor Smith, 1941 and, presumably, orizabensis Dugès, 1905, as subspecies of D. melanurus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854), a tenable provisional arrangement” [from WÜSTER et al. 2001]. 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): from Greek “drymos” = forest, and “archon” = ruler, sovereign. 
References
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