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Drymobius chloroticus (COPE, 1886)

IUCN Red List - Drymobius chloroticus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesGreen Highland Racer 
SynonymDendrophidion chloroticum COPE 1886: 278
Drymobius chloroticus — COPE 1887: 69
Drymobius chloroticus — BOULENGER 1894: 16
Drymobius chloroticus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 98
Drymobius chloroticus - VILLA et al. 1988
Drymobius chloroticus — LINER 1994
Drymobius chloroticus — LINER 2007
Drymobius chloroticus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 246 
DistributionSE Mexico (Verarcuz, Oaxaca, Chiapas, San Luis Potosi, Hidalgo), Belize ?, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua; elevation (Honduras): 780-1900 m

Type locality: Guatemala. Restricted to Cobán, Guatemala. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: USNM 6755, a 1048 mm female (H. Hague). 
CommentRelative abundance in Honduras: rare

Original description from COPE (1886): The scales are in seventeen rows, of which four rows on each side are smooth on the anterior part of the body, and only two smooth on the posterior. The parietal plates are a little longer than the frontal, which has straight sides. The eye is large, its anteroposterior diameter equaling the width of the superciliary and frontal scuta combined, and equaling the length of the muzzle to the middle of the prenasal plate. Oculars 1-2. Temporals 2-2, all narrow. Superior labials nine, the last three longer than high. Loreal large, higher than long: nasals rather small. Gastrosteges 169; anal 1-1; urosteges, 117. Color above, including ends of gastrosteges, green: below yellow. On stretching the skin it is seen to be black between the scales of the sides of every second or third row, in oblique lines running upwards and forwards. Total length M.1.048; of tail, .341; to rictus oris .027.
This species is abundantly different from the D. melanotropis Cope, but is near to the D. dendrophis Schl. The muzzle is shorter than in our specimens of the latter, and in those figured by Jan, and the number of keeled rows of scales is less, nine to fifteen. The color is entirely different.

It seems likely that the two nominal taxa, D. chloroticus and D. melanotropis, will ultimately prove to be geographic variants of a single species, although Wilson (1970,1975b) reported virtual sympatry for the two: D. chloroticus at a locality 19 km north of Matagalpa, Nicaragua. The presumed differences between chloroticus and melanotropis are trivial (chloroticus: no black keels on the dorsal scales,
subcaudals 1.07 to 125; melanotropis: black keels on the three uppermost dorsal scales, subcaudals 91 to 96). The degree to which the keels are darkened in Costa Rican examples is now known to be variable, so this feature does
not reliably separate the nominal species [from SAVAGE 2002].

Distribution: Taylor's records (1951, 1954) for the related species Drymobius chloroticus are based on examples of Dendrophidion paucicarinaturus (Wilson 1970). Not in Costa Rica fide SAVAGE 2002. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is derived from the Greek word chloros, meaning "green," and the suffix -ticus, meaning "a condition of," in reference to the snake's overall green coloration. 
References
  • Badillo-Saldaña, L.M.; C. Berriozabal-Islas; A. Ramírez-Bautista 2014. New record of the snake Drymobius chloroticus (Cope, 1886) (Squamata: Colubridae) from Hidalgo, Mexico. Check List 10 (1): 199-201 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. Thirteenth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23: 271-287 [1885] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1887. Catalogue of batrachians and reptiles of Central America and México. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 32: 1-98 - get paper here
  • Guerra Centeno, Dennis; Héctor Fuentes Rousselin & David Morán Villatoro 2012. Serpientes de Guatemala: Guía para didentificación de especies. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, 186 pp.
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2003. Drymobius chloroticus (COPE). Sauria 25 (3): 2 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. and James R. Dixon 2013. Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. Eagle Mountain Publishing, xii + 300 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., Geoffrey R. Smith 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Check List 11 (3): 1642 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Livezey, R. L.;Peckham, R. S. 1953. Some snakes from San Marcos, Guatemala. Herpetologica 8: 175-177 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, V., E. García-Padilla, D. L. DeSantis, A. Rocha, L. D. Wilson, P. R. Simón-Salvador, C. Mayoral-Halla, B. F. Montiel-Altamirano, and A. Ramírez-Bautista. 2017. New herpetofaunal distribution records for the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(3): 679–683 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
  • McCranie, J. & Castañeda, F.E. 2005. The herpetofauna of Parque Nacional Pico Bonito, Honduras. Phyllomedusa 4 (1): 3-16 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • Pérez-santos, C. E. 1986. Zoogeografía de los Ophidia en Colombia. Univ. Complutense, Madrid, 2 vols., 971 pp.
  • Savage, J.M. & Bolaños, F. 2009. A checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: Additions and nomenclatural revisions. Zootaxa 2005: 1–23 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Townsend, J. H., L. D. Wilson, M. Medina-Flores, E. Aguilar-Urbina, B. K. Atkinson et al. 2012. A premontane hotspot for herpetological endemism on the windward side of Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, Honduras. Salamandra 48 (2): 92-114 - get paper here
  • Villa, J., Wilson, L.D., Johnson, J.D. 1988. Middle American Herpetology - A Bibliographic Checklist. University of Missouri Press
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wilson, L.D. 1970. A review of the chloroticus group of the colubrid snake genus Drymobius, with notes on a twin-striped form of D. chloroticus (Cope) from southern México. Journal of Herpetology 4: 155-163. - get paper here
  • Wilson, L.D. & McCranie, J.R. 2003. The herpetofauna of the cloud forests of Honduras. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 3 (1): 34-48 - get paper here
  • Wilson,L.D. 1975. Drymobius chloroticus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 171: 1-2. - get paper here
 
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