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Drymoluber brazili (GOMES, 1918)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesBrazilian Woodland Racer 
SynonymDrymobius brazilii GOMES 1918: 81
Drymobius rubriceps AMARAL 1923: 85
Drymobius rubriceps AMARAL 1926: 100
Drymobius boddaerti — AMARAL 1929 (partim)
Drymoluber brazili - STUART 1932
Drymoluber brazili — CAMPOS NOGUEIRA 2001
Drymoluber brazili — COSTA et al. 2013
Drymoluber brazili — WALLACH et al. 2014: 247 
DistributionSC Brazil (Minas Gerais, Distrito Federal, Bahia [HR 35: 191], Rondonia, Piaui, Goias, S Ceará), Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014)

Type locality: Estaçâo de Engenheiro Lisbôo, near Uberaba, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: IB = IBSP 696, adult male (possibly lost in fire in 2010)
Paratypes: Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, IBSP 383, adult male, SVL 863 mm, TL 394 mm, collected in February 1913, in the Estação Ferroviária Santa Eudóxia (currently inactive), municipality of São Carlos (-21.77, -47.78), São Paulo, Brazil; IBSP 573, adult female, SVL 854 mm, TL 422 mm, collected in February 1914, in the Estação Ferroviária de Sampaio Vidal (currently inactive), municipality of Ribeirão Bonito (-22.07, -48.18), São Paulo, Brazil; IBSP 574, adult male, SVL 862 mm, TL 268+N mm (broken tail), without locality data; IBSP 741, adult male, SVL 1120 mm, TL 162+N mm (broken tail), collected in December 1914, in the Estação Ferroviária Java (currently inactive), municipality of Boa Esperança do Sul (-21.99, -48.39), São Paulo, Brazil; IBSP 1286, adult female, SVL 898 mm, TL 402 mm, collected in May 1917, in the Estação Ferroviária Pedregulho (currently inactive), municipality of Pedregulho (-20.26, -47.48), São Paulo, Brazil. 
CommentSynonymy: Note that Amaral described Drymobius rubriceps as a new species in two independent papers, published in 1923 and 1926.

Diagnosis: Drymoluber brazili can be distinguished from D. apurimacensis and D. dichrous by the following combination of characters: a) 17-17-15 dorsal scale rows with two apical pits; b) 182–200 ventrals in males, 185– 202 in females; c) 109–127 subcaudals in males, 109–126 in females; d) 19–25 maxillary teeth. See Table 5 in COSTA et al. 2013.

Variation: juveniles of this species are banded while the adults are uniformly colored. See Figure 19 in COSTA et al. 2013: 378.

Comparisons: Drymoluber apurimacensis has 13-13-13 dorsal scales rows, and D. dichrous has 15-15-15. Apical pits are absent in D. apurimacensis. Drymoluber apurimacensis has 158–164 ventrals in males and 166–182 in females, 84–93 subcaudals in males and 87–91 in females. Drymoluber dichrous has 157–173 ventrals in males and 160–180 in females, 87–110 subcaudals in males and 86–109 in females. Drymoluber apurimacensis has 14– 16 maxillary teeth.
Small specimens of Drymoluber brazili have dark crossbands 2–6 scales wide (mean 3.6) and light interspaces 0.5–5 scales wide (mean 1.6), while in a single specimen of D. apurimacensis the dark crossbands are 1–2 scales wide and the light interspaces 2–3 scales wide. Young specimens of D. dichrous have dark crossbands with similar width to those of D. brazili (1.5–7 scales, mean 3.6), but the pale interspaces are on average narrower (0.5–2.5 scales, mean 0.8).
The hemipenes of Drymoluber brazili tend to have fewer calyces than that of D. dichrous and D. apurimacensis, larger spinulate flounces, and spines in the lobular region. The walls of the sulcus spermaticus are less ornamented. The spines of the asulcate face in general are smaller than those of D. dichrous and D. apurimacensis, especially those most proximal [COSTA et al. 2013] 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Vital Brazil Mineiro da Campanha, founder and former director of the Instituto (Seroterápico) de Butantan, NOT the species’ distribution in Brazil. 
  • Amaral, A. do 1923. New genera and species of snakes. Proc. New England Zool. Club 8: 85-105 - get paper here
  • Amaral, A. do 1926. Novos gêneros e expécies de ophidios brasileiros. Arch. Mus. Nac. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro 26: 1-27
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Snakes of Rondônia State, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • CALDEIRA-COSTA, HENRIQUE; MÁRIO RIBEIRO MOURA, RENATO NEVES FEIO 2013. Taxonomic revision of Drymoluber Amaral, 1930 (Serpentes: Colubridae). Zootaxa 3716 (3): 349–394 - get paper here
  • Campos Nogueira, C. de 2001. New records of Squamate Reptiles in Central Brazilian Cerrado II: Brasília Region. Herpetological Review 32 (4): 285-287 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and <br />Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Freitas, M.A.; D.P.F. França; D. Veríssimo. 2012. Distribution extension of Drymoluber brazili (Gomes, 1918) (Serpentes: Colubridae) for the state of Piauí, Brazil. Check List 8(1):168-169 - get paper here
  • Gomes, J.F. 1918. Contribuição para o conhecimento dos ofidios do Brasil. III (1). Mem. Inst. Butantan 1 (1): 57-83 - get paper here
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E.; Carrillo, N. & Hocking, P. 2004. New species of Drymoluber (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from Southeastern Peru. Copeia 2004 (1): 46-52 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro, S. C., I. J. Roberto, D. L. Sales, R. W. Ávila & W. O. Almeida 2012. Amphibians and reptiles from the Araripe bioregion, northeastern Brazil. Salamandra 48 (3): 133-146 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, M.T. 2003. Herpetofauna da Caatinga. In: I.R. Leal, M. Tabarelli & J.M.C. Silva (eds.). Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga, pp. 181-236. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil.
  • Stuart, L. C. 1932. Studies on neotropical colubrinae I. The taxonomic status of the genus Drymobius Fitzinger. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (236): 1-16
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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