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Ebenavia inunguis BOETTGER, 1878

IUCN Red List - Ebenavia inunguis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Madagascar Clawless Gecko
D: Pinselschwanzgecko 
SynonymEbenavia inunguis BOETTGER 1878
Ebenavia inunguis — BOULENGER 1885: 96
Ebenavia boettgeri BOULENGER 1885: 96
Ebenavia inunguis — KLUGE 1993
Ebenavia inunguis — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 263
Ebenavia inunguis — RÖSLER 1995: 114
Ebenavia inunguis — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 9
Ebenavia inunguis — RÖSLER 2000: 78
Ebenavia inunguis — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 75 
DistributionNW Madagascar, Nossi Be

Type locality: Nossi Be = Nosy Bé  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: SMF 8318, originally 4096a, adult male. Boettger (1878:10) explicitly stated that his description was based on a single individual. Boettger (1893:26) indicated that 4096a consisted of four individuals. Mertens (1967) selected the original holotype as the lectotype of a series that also comprised three adult females SMF 8332–8334, which were originally joined with SMF 8318 under the number 4096a. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Leaf-toed (phyllodactyle) gekkonines with claws restricted to digits of pes of females; dorsolateral scales of head, body, and limbs multicarinate except few enlarged anterior plates on tip of snout of E. inunguis; variable number of multicarinate scales on tail and ventral surfaces.

Diagnosis (genus): A comprehensive diagnosis and description of the genus Ebenavia are provided in Nussbaum and Raxworthy (1998). Hawlitschek et al. 2018 agree with the findings of that study, except that they were not able to confirm the presence of claws on the pes of any of the females we examined, as reported by these authors, in agreement with Boettger (1878) and many subsequent authors.

Diagnosis (species): Morphological data is given in Table 2 and ESM 1, the photograph of a living specimen is available in Fig. 4a. Distinguished from Ebenavia maintimainty, E. boettgeri, and E. robusta sp. nov. by rostral scale in contact with nostril (RNO = yes); from E. maintimainty by larger SVL (32.8–37.0 vs. ≤ 24 mm), rostral scale bordered by postrostrals distinct from posterior head scales, absence of prenasal scale between rostral and nostril, keeled abdominal scales, and ligh- ter colour; from E. robusta sp. nov. by absence of distinct tubercles on hindlimbs (TNO = no), smaller SVL (32.8–37.0 vs. 34.4–42.6 mm), smaller ratio of BW/SVL (0.12–0.18 vs. 0.15–0.22), fewer ILAB (8–10 vs. 10–11), IOS (16–20 vs. 20–23), and DTAP (33–43 vs. 46–51); from E. tuelinae sp. nov. by ratio EE/HL (0.33–0.39 vs. 0.27–0.36), HINL/AGD (0.58–0.75 vs. 0.67–0.86), and lower DTAP (33–43 vs. 52– 62); from E. safari sp. nov. by generally lower DTAP (33–43 vs. 38–54). Furthermore, distinguished from E. boettgeri and E. safari sp. nov. by short nasal process of prevomer; from E. tuelinae sp. nov. and E. robusta sp. nov. by long premaxillary lappets of nasals; from E. safari sp. nov. by recognisable basal tubercle on basisphenoid; and from all other analysed Ebenavia except E. boettgeri by a codon insertion of CGA (Proline) at position 438 from the 5′ primer binding site of the PRLR fragment.
Osteological description of the holotype: Endolymphatic sacs in the neck not calcified. Premaxilla with ca. 8 teeth, maxilla with ca. 42 teeth. Nasals fused. Nasal process of pre- maxilla short and sharply tapering. Premaxillary lappet of na- sal long and tapering. Parietals paired, not fused.
Maxilloprefrontal suture connects with nasals anterior to con- tact point of frontonasal suture with prefrontals. Frontonasal suture with shape similar to brace or curly bracket, with tip in anterior direction. Basal tubercle on basisphenoid present. Presacral vertebrae 26, including 8 cervical vertebrae and 3 vertebrae connected to sternal ribs. Phalangeal formulae 2-3- 4-5-3 in manus and 2-3-4-5-4 in pes. 
CommentSynonymy: Ebenavia boettgeri Boulenger, 1885 was considered a synonym of Ebenavia inunguis by Boulenger (1887) and subsequent authors but was resurrected as a valid species by Hawlitschek et al. 2018.

Type Species: Ebenavia inunguis BOETTGER 1878 is the type species of the genus Ebenavia.

Hawlitschek et al. 2016 provide evidence for the existence of a species complex.

Distribution: see map in Hawlitschek et al. 2018: 48 (Fig. 5). 
EtymologyThe genus Ebenavia was named after the collector Carl (sometimes written as Karl) Ebenau and is therefore formed neither from a Latin nor a Greek word. The fact that the name is consistently written as Ebenavia (as opposed to ‘Ebenauia’) throughout the paper suggests that the ‘u’ was intentionally changed to ‘v’. The reason for this change was not given by Boettger, but it may have been a latinisation of the name, or for greater euphony, or both. The gender of the genus was not mentioned by Boettger (1878) and can neither be derived from the species name inunguis nor from the later described taxa boettgeri (named after Oskar Boettger) and maintimainty (Malagasy adjective). Based on Article 30 (‘Gender of genus-group names’) of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999) and more specifically Article 30.2.4. (‘If no gender was specified or indicated, the name is to be treated as masculine, except that, if the name ends in -/a/ the gender is feminine, and if it ends in -/um/, -/on/, or -/u/ the gender is neuter.’). The gender of Ebenavia is feminine (from Hawlitschek et al. 2018).

The specific name "inun- guis", (Latin) for "without claws", is a misnomer as females have claws on their toes (but see description). 
References
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