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Ebenavia safari HAWLITSCHEK, SCHERZ, RUTHENSTEINER, CROTTINI & GLAW, 2018

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymEbenavia safari HAWLITSCHEK, SCHERZ, RUTHENSTEINER, CROTTINI & GLAW 2018
Ebenavia inunguis Pemba — PAKENHAM 1983
Ebenavia inunguis Pemba — SPAWLS et al. 2018
Ebenavia inunguis Mayotte — ANGEL 1942
Ebenavia inunguis Mayotte — BLANC 1971
Ebenavia inunguis Mayotte — BLANC 1972
Ebenavia inunguis Mayotte — NUSSBAUM & RAXWORTHY 1998, partim
Ebenavia inunguis Mayotte — MEIRTE 1999, partim
Ebenavia inunguis Mayotte — MEIRTE 2004
Ebenavia inunguis Mayotte — HAWLITSCHEK et al. 2011
Ebenavia inunguis Mayotte — HAWLITSCHEK et al. 2013
Ebenavia inunguis complex Clade B — HAWLITSCHEK et al. 2016
Ebenavia inunguis complex North Clade — HAWLITSCHEK et al. 2016 
DistributionN Madagascar, Mayotte (Comoros Archipelago), Tanzania (Pemba Island)

Type locality: around Tungamaa, Pemba, Tanzania (5.0747° S, 39.7561° E, 9 m elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous; eggs collected in 2008 were found as part of a common clutch of several females comprising > 10 eggs. This clutch was found in the mulch within a tree cavity. The eggs hatched within 3 days from their collection. 
TypesHolotype: ZSM 2725/2010 (FGZC 3435), adult female, collected 09 January 2009 by F. Glaw, O. Hawlitschek, and D. Rödder. Paratypes: ZSM 2724/2010 (FGZC 3434), adult male, and ZSM 2726/2010 (FGZC 3530), adult female, collected 09 January 2009, around Tungamaa, Pemba, Tanzania (5.0747° S, 39.7561° E, 9 m a.s.l.), by F. Glaw, O. Hawlitschek, and D. Rödder. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Morphological data is given in Table 2 and ESM 1, a photograph of a living specimen is available in Fig. 4d, f. Distinguished from Ebenavia maintimainty, E. boettgeri, and E. robusta sp. nov. by rostral scale in contact with nostril (RNO = yes); from E. maintimainty by larger SVL (31.0–39.5 vs. ≤ 24 mm), rostral scale bordered by postrostrals distinct from posterior head scales, absence of prenasal scale between rostral and nostril, keeled abdominal scales, and lighter colour; from E. inunguis by higher ILAB (9–11 vs. 8–10) and DTAP (38–54 vs. 33–43); from E. tuelinae sp. nov. by ratio EE/HL (0.29–0.42 vs. 0.27–0.36), HINL/AGD (0.55– 0.80 vs. 0.67–0.86), and lower DTAP (38–54 vs. 52–62); from E. boettgeri by higher DTAP (38–54 vs. 33–49); from E. robusta sp. nov. by absence of distinct tubercles on hindlimbs (TUB = no), smaller SVL (31.0–39.5 vs. 34.4–42.6 mm), smaller ratio of BW/SVL (0.13–0.20 vs. 0.15–0.22), and lower IOS (17–22 vs. 20–23). Furthermore, distinguished from all other analysed Ebenavia except E. boettgeri by long tapering nasal process of prevomer; from E. tuelinae sp. nov. and E. robusta sp. nov. by long premaxillary lappets of nasals; from all other analysed Ebenavia by absence of basal tubercle on basisphenoid; from E. tuelinae sp. nov. by a codon insertion of AGG (Glutamine) at position 498 from the 5′ primer binding site of the PRLR fragment; and from E. inunguis and E. boettgeri by a codon deletion of CGA (Proline) at position 438. 
CommentDistribution: see map in Hawlitschek et al. 2018: 48 (Fig. 5).

Habitat: E. safari sp. nov. is observed in natural or near natural humid forests, but it has also been detected in dry forests of Ampombofofo and Montagne des Français. In Mayotte, E. safari sp. nov. were almost exclusively observed in pristine forest areas, mostly in ferns or Pandanus plants. 
Etymology‘Safari’ means ‘voyage’ in the Kiswahili and Comoran (Shimaoré) languages spoken across the range of this species outside Madagascar. The name was chosen be- cause this species dispersed over surprisingly long distances across the open ocean. It is treated as an unlatinised, invariable noun in apposition. 
References
  • Angel, F. 1942. Les Lézards de Madagascar. Mem. Acad. Malagache, Tananarive XXXVI: 193 pp.
  • Blanc, C.P. 1972. Les reptiles de Madagascar et des iles voisines. in Battistini & Richard-Vindard, eds.: 501-614.
  • Blanc, Charles P. 1971. Les Reptiles de Madagascar et des Iles Voisines. Annales Univ. Madagascar, Ser. Sci. Nat. Math. (Tananarive), 8: 95-178.
  • Hawlitschek O, Nagy ZT, Berger J, Glaw F 2013. Reliable DNA Barcoding Performance Proved for Species and Island Populations of Comoran Squamate Reptiles. PLoS One 8 (9): e73368. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073368 - get paper here
  • Hawlitschek, O., Ramírez Garrido, S. and Glaw, F. 2017. How marine currents influenced the widespread natural overseas dispersal of reptiles in the Western Indian Ocean region. J. Biogeogr., 44: 1435–1440. doi:10.1111/jbi.12940 - get paper here
  • Hawlitschek, O., Toussaint, E. F. A., Gehring, P.-S., Ratsoavina, F. M., Cole, N., Crottini, A., Nopper, J., Lam, A. W., Vences, M. and Glaw, F. 2016. Gecko phylogeography in the Western Indian Ocean region: the oldest clade of Ebenavia inunguis lives on the youngest island. J. Biogeogr., doi:10.1111/jbi.12912 - get paper here
  • Hawlitschek, Oliver; Boris Brückmann, Johannes Berger, Katie Green, Frank Glaw 2011. Integrating field surveys and remote sensing data to study distribution, habitat use and conservation status of the herpetofauna of the Comoro Islands. ZooKeys 144: 21-79 - get paper here
  • Hawlitschek, Oliver; Mark D. Scherz; Bernhard Ruthensteiner; Angelica Crottini & Frank Glaw 2018. Computational molecular species delimitation and taxonomic revision of the gecko genus Ebenavia Boettger, 1878 The Science of Nature 105:49 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2019. Liste der im Jahr 2018 neu beschriebenen Reptilien. Elaphe 2019 (3): 52-72
  • Meirte D 2004. Reptiles. In: Louette M, Meirte D, Jocqué R (Eds) La faune terrestre de l'archipel des Comores. Studies in Afrotropical Zoology 293:199–220
  • Meirte,D. 1999. In: Louette,M., La faune terrestre de Mayotte. Annales Sciences Zoologiques, Musée Royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren, Belgique 284: 247 pp.
  • Nussbaum, Ronald A. and Christopher J. Raxworthy 1998. Revision of tyhe genus Ebenavia Boettger (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae). Herpetologica 54 (1): 18-34. - get paper here
  • Pakenham, R.H.W. 1983. The reptiles and amphibians of Zanzibar and Pemba Islands (with a note on the freshwater fishes). J. of the East Afr. Natur. Hist. Soc. and Natl. Mus. no. 177 40 pp.
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
 
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