Echinosaura horrida BOULENGER, 1890
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Echinosaura horrida?
|Higher Taxa||Gymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)|
|Common Names||E: Rough Teiid|
S: Corcho de agua
|Synonym||Echinosaura horrida BOULENGER 1890: 83|
Echinosaura horrida — PETERS et al. 1970: 112
Echinosaura horrida — KÖHLER 2000: 101
Echinosaura horrida — KÖHLER 2004
Echinosaura horrida — VALENCIA-ZULETA et al. 2014
Echinosauria horrida — RIOS et al. 2011 (in error)
Echinosaura horrida — VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO et al. 2019
|Distribution||NW Ecuador, Colombia (Valle del Cauca, Chocó), elevation in Ecuador: 200-860 m|
Type locality: Ecuador.
|Types||Syntypes: BMNH 1918.104.22.168-61 (2)|
|Diagnosis||Diagnosis (genus Echinosaura): Phenotypic characteristics of Echinosaura include: (1) dorsal scales heterogeneous, with small or granular, irregular scales intermixed with tubercular or spine-like scales; (2) dorsal surface of the head with large, symmetrical and paired scales anteriorly, and with irregular small scales posteriorly; (3) internasal single or divided; (4) frontonasals paired; (5) prefrontals usually absent; (6) frontal scale single or divided; (7) frontoparietals small, paired; (8) interparietal and postparietal scales not well defined (Fig. 10); (9) postmental large, single (reduced or absent in E. brachycephala); (10) chin shields usually large, in one pair (smaller in E. horrida, not differentiated in E. brachycephala) (Fig. 10); (11) lower eyelid developed, with a palpebral disc divided into several, unpigmented scales; (12) ventral scales squared (or rounded squares), not imbricated; (13) limbs pentadactyl, digits clawed; (14) males with well-developed femoral pores, females usually lacking them or having fewer femoral pores than males (if present, weakly developed or barely distinguishable). Morphological variation among species of Echinosaura is summarized in Table 2 and 3.|
Echinosaura differs from other cercosaurines, except Centrosaura, Gelanesaurus, Neusticurus, Potamites and Rheosaurus, in having heterogeneous dorsal scalation. It differs from the other genera with heterogeneous dorsal scalation in having small or granular, irregular dorsal scales intermixed with tubercular or spine-like scales (vs. small irregular or granular dorsal scales intermixed with large or polygonal keeled scales), several irregular scales on the parietal region (vs. regular scales on parietal region) and usually one pair of large chin shields (vs. usually more than one pair of large chin shields). A comparison of Echinosaura and closely related and morphologically similar genera is given in Table 5 and Figure 9 in VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO et al. 2019.
Diagnosis: Echinosaura horrida can be readily distinguished from the other two congeneric species by the presence in the dorsum if continuous and longitudinal rows of tubercles juxtaposed (no continuous in E. orcesi; 2-6 scales between longitudinal rows of tubercles in E. brachycephala) and three ventral scales per caudal segment (five to six in E. orcesi; four in E. brachycephala).
|Comment||Subspecies: The subspecies E. h. palmeri BOULENGER 1911 and E. h. panamensis BARBOUR 1924 are now considered as valid species.|
Type species: Echinosaura horrida BOULENGER 1890: 83 is the type species of the genus Echinosaura BOULENGER 1890.
|Etymology||Although not explicitly stated by Boulenger (1890), the name Echinosaura (gender feminine) is presumably formed from the Ancient Greek ἐχῖνος, echinos (hedgehog or urchin) and σαύρα, saura (lizard) – a spiny lizard.|