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Echis pyramidum (GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, 1827)

IUCN Red List - Echis pyramidum - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesEchis pyramidum pyramidum (GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE 1827)
Echis pyramidum leakeyi STEMMLER & SOCHUREK 1969
Echis pyramidum lucidus CHERLIN 1990 
Common NamesNorth-East African Carpet Viper, Egyptian Saw-scaled Viper 
SynonymScytale pyramidum GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE 1827: 152
Echis pavo REUSS 1834: 157
Echis varia REUSS 1834: 160
Echis carinatus pyramidum - IONIDES & PITMAN 1965
Echis carinatus pyramidum — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Echis varius darevskii CHERLIN 1990
Echis arenicola — fide DAVID & INEICH 1999
Echis pyramidum — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 380
Echis carinatus pyramidum — KHAN 2002 (pers. comm.)
Echis pyramidum — POOK et al. 2009
Echis varius (pyramidum) — MAZUCH 2013

Echis pyramidum leakeyi STEMMLER & SOCHUREK 1969
Echis carinatus leakeyi STEMMLER & SOCHUREK 1969
Echis carinatus leakeyi — DREWES 1972
Echis carinatus aliaborri DREWES & SACHERER 1974 (fide POOK et al. 2009)
Echis pyramidum aliaborri — CHERLIN 1983
Echis varia aliaborri — CHERLIN 1990
Echis pyramidum aliaborri — GOLAY et al. 1993: 272
Echis pyramidum leakeyi — DAVID & INEICH 1999
Echis pyramidum leakeyi — OKUDA 2001
Echis pyramidum leakeyi — DOBIEY & VOGEL 2007
Echis pyramidum aliaborri — DOBIEY & VOGEL 2007 
DistributionKenya, Somalia, S Ethiopia, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Djibouti, Eritrea, Uganda, Sudan, Central African Republic,
Saudi Arabia (incl. Farasan Islands), Oman, Yemen

pyramidum: S/W-Arabian peninsula, Egypt, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia; Type locality: Egypt.

aliaborri: NE Kenya

leakeyi: Kenya, S Somalia, S Ethiopia

borkini: SW Arabia, W Yemen; Type locality: Lahej near Aden.

darevskii: Sudan Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: MNHN 4031, according to Hughes (1976, Rev. Suisse ZooI. 83:359-371[361]).
Holotype: SMF 21058 [varia] 
CommentVenomous!

Distribution: not in Pakistan fide KHAN 2006.

Taxonomy: Cerlin (1990) in a revision of the genus, splits E. pyramidum in many species or subspecies: E. p. pyramidum, E. p. lucidus, E. p. leakeyi Stemmler & Sochurek, 1969, E. varius varius Reuss, 1934, E. v. darevskyi, E. v. borkini, E. v. aliaborri Drewes & Sacherer, 1974, E. hughesi and E. megalocephalus from N and E Africa, E. varius borkini and E. khosatzkii from SW Arabian peninsula. Golay et al. (1993) synonymize E. a. arenicola with E. pyramidum. According to McDiarmid et al. (1999) most of these forms are synonyms of E. pyramidum. POOK et al. (2009) consider E. khosatzkii and E. borkini as valid species, based on DNA sequence data. If E. khosatzkii and E. borkini are recognized then pyramidum has to be restricted to Africa.

Reproduction: oviparous. 
References
  • Arnold, E. Nicholas; Michael D. Robinson, Salvador Carranza 2009. A preliminary analysis of phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the dangerously venomous Carpet Vipers, Echis (Squamata, Serpentes, Viperidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences Amphibia-Reptilia 30 (2009): 273-282 - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1994. A collection of snakes from eastern Sudan, with the description of a new species of Telescopus Wagler, 1830 (Reptilia: Ophidia). Journal of African Zoology 108 (2): 201-208.
  • Cherlin V A; Borkin L J 1990. Taxonomic revision of the snake genus Echis (Viperidae). 1. An analysis of the history of study and synonymy. TRUDY ZOOLOGICHESKOGO INSTITUTA 207: 175-192, 234.
  • Cherlin,V.A. 1983. Vestn. Zool. (Kiev) 1983: 42-46
  • Cherlin,V.A. 1990. Taxonomic revision of the snake genus Echis (Viperidae). II. An analysis of taxonomy and description of new forms [in Russian]. Proc. Zool. Institute Leningrad 207: 193-223
  • Chirio, Laurent and Ivan Ineich 2006. Biogeography of the reptiles of the Central African Republic. African Journal of Herpetology 55(1):23-59. - get paper here
  • Corkill, N. L. and Cochrane, J. A. 1966. The snakes of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 62 (3): 475-506 (1965)
  • CUNNINGHAM, P. 2009. A contribution to the reptiles of the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia Afr. Herp News (50): 21-24
  • David,P. & Vogel,G. 2010. Venomous Snakes of Europe, Northern, Central and Western Asia (TERRALOG 16) (English and German Edition). Edition Chimaira, 160 pp.
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Terralog 15, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 150 pp.
  • Drewes, R. C.; Sacherer, J. M. 1974. A new population of Carpet Vipers Echis carinatus from northern Kenya. Journal of the East African Natural History Society and National Museum (145): 1-7
  • Drewes, R.C. 1972. Report on a collection of reptiles and amphibians from the Ilemi Triangle, Southwestern Sudan. Occ. Pap. Cal. Acad. Sci. (100): 1-14 - get paper here
  • Duff-Mackay, A. 1965. Notes on the biology of the carpet viper, Echis carinatus pyramidum (Geoffroy), in the northern frontier province of Kenya J. E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc. 25 (1): 28-40
  • Egan, D. 2007. Snakes of Arabia. Motivate Publishing, Dubai, 208 pp.
  • Geoffroy, l. 1827. Description des Reptiles. In: Savigny, M. J. C. L. de, Description d’Égypte... Vol. l. Histoire Naturelle. Paris, L’imprimerie impériale. pp. 121-160 (115-184) [1809?] - get paper here
  • Ionides, CJ.P. & C.R.S. PITMAN 1965. Notes on two East-African venomous snake populations: Echis carinatus pyramidium (Geoffroy), Egyptian Saw-Scaled Viper and Vipera hindii Boulenger, Montane Viper. J. E. Afr. nat. Hist. Soc. natn. Mus. 25 (2-111): 116-121.
  • Khan, M.S. 1983. Venomous terrestrial snakes of Pakistan The Snake 15 (2): 101-105.
  • Khan, M.S. 2006. Amphibians and reptiles of Pakistan. Krieger, Malabar, 311 pp.
  • Lanza, B. 1990. Amphibians and reptiles of the Somali Democratic Republic: check list and biogeography. Biogeographia, 14: 407-465 [1988]
  • Largen, M.J.; Spawls, S. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 694 pp.
  • Largen,M.J. & Rasmussen,J.B. 1993. Catalogue of the snakes of Ethiopia (Reptilia Serpentes), including identification keys. Tropical Zoology 6: 313-434
  • Le Berre,L.M. 1989. Faune du Sahara 1. Poissons, Amphibiens, Reptiles. Lechevalier, R. Chabaud, Paris, 332 pp.
  • Lehmann,M. 1980. Haltung und Nachzucht von Echis carinatus leakeyi x Echis coloratus. Herpetofauna 2 (4): 32-34 - get paper here
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • Mazuch, Tomáš 2013. Amphibians and Reptiles of Somaliland and Eastern Ethiopia. Tomáš Mazuch Publishing, 80 pp. ISBN: 978-80-905439-0-4 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Okuda, Daiju; Chihiro Nozaki, Fujio Sekiya, and Takashi Morita 2001. Comparative Biochemistry of Disintegrins Isolated from Snake Venom: Consideration of the Taxonomy and Geographical Distribution of Snakes in the Genus Echis. J. Biochem. 129: 615-620
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Pook, Catharine E.; Ulrich Joger, Nikolaus Stümpel, Wolfgang Wüster 2009. When continents collide: Phylogeny, historical biogeography and systematics of the medically important viper genus Echis (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (3): 792-807 - get paper here
  • Reuss, A. 1834. Zoologische Miscellen. Reptilien, Ophidier. [Coluber albiventris, Echis pavo] Mus. Senckenbergiana, Frankfurt/M., 1: 129-162. - get paper here
  • Schleich,H.H., Kästle,W., Kabisch, K. 1996. Amphibians and Reptiles of North Africa. Koeltz, Koenigstein, 627 pp.
  • Smith, H. M.; Gloyd, H. K. 1964. Nomenclatural notes on the snake names Scytale, Boa scytale, and Agkistrodon mokasen Herpetologica 19 (4): 280-282 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2001. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147]
  • Stemmler & SOCHUREK 1969. Die Sandrasselotter von Kenya: Echis carinatus leakeyi subsp. nov. Aquaterra 6 (8): 89-94
  • van der Kooij, Jeroen 2001. The herpetofauna of the Sultanate of Oman: Part 4: The terrestrial snakes. Podarcis 2 (2): 54-64
 
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