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Eirenis levantinus SCHMIDTLER, 1993

IUCN Red List - Eirenis levantinus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common Names 
SynonymEirenis levantinus SCHMIDTLER 1993
Eirenis levantinus — SCHMIDTLER 1997
Eirenis (Pediophis) levantinus — NAGY et al. 2004
Eirenis levantinus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 258
Eirenis levantinus — MEIRI et al. 2019 
DistributionS Turkey (incl. Cyprus), Syria, Lebanon, N Israel

Type locality: 6 km SW of Karaisali, Adana prov., S Turkey.  
TypesHolotype: ZSM 14/1991, paratypes: ZSM, MNHG, NMW, SMF, ZDEU, ZIG, ZFMK 55931 
  • Baier, F.; Sparrow, D.J. & Wiedl, H.J. 2009. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Cyprus. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt/M., ca. 370 pp.
  • Bar, Aviad and Guy Haimovitch 2012. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Israel. Pazbar LTD, 246 pp. - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang 2014. Herpetology in Bonn. Mertensiella 21. vi + 256 pp. - get paper here
  • Esterbauer, Hans 2015. Habitat- und Terrarienbeobachtungen an Zwergnattern der Gattung Eirenis aus Südwestsyrien. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (5): 34-41 - get paper here
  • Gruber, U. 2009. Die Schlangen Europas, 2. Aufl. Kosmos Naturführer, 266 pp.
  • Hraoui-Bloquet, S.; Sadek, R.A.; Sindaco, R. & Venchi, A. 2002. The herpetofauna of Lebanon: new data on distribution. Zoology in the Middle East 27: 35-46 - get paper here
  • LANDSMAN, A. & WERNER, Y. L. 2011. Captive reproduction of Eirenis levantinus SCHMIDTLER, 1993 with comments on some congeners. Herpetozoa 23 (3/4): 59-65 - get paper here
  • Mahlow, Kristin; Frank Tillack, Josef Friedrich Schmidtler & Johannes Müller 2013. An annotated checklist, description and key to the dwarf snakes of the genus Eirenis Jan, 1863 (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae), with special emphasis on the dentition. Vertebrate Zoology 63 (1): 41–85 - get paper here
  • Martens, Harald 1997. A review of "Zoogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Syria, with additional new records" (Herpetozoa 9(1/2), 1996). Herpetozoa 10 (3/4): 99-106 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Amos Belmaker, Daniel Berkowic, Kesem Kazes, Erez Maza, Guy Bar-Oz and Roi Dor 2019. A checklist of Israeli land vertebrates. Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution - get paper here
  • Nagy, Z.T., J.F. Schmidtler, U. Joger & M. Wink 2003. Systematik der Zwergnattern (Reptilia: Colubridae: Eirenis) und verwandter Gruppen anhand von DNA-Sequenzen und morphologischen Daten. Salamandra 39 (3-4): 149-168 - get paper here
  • Schätti B. & Monsch, P. 2004. Systematics and phylogenetic relationships of Whip snakes (Hierophis Fitzinger) and Zamenis andreana Werner 1917 (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubrinae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 111 (2): 239-256 - get paper here
  • Schmidtler, J. F., B. Göçmen, M. Z. Yildiz, B. Akman, D. Yalçinkaya & Z. T. Nagy 2009. Rediscoveryof the snake genus Eirenis on Cyprus (Reptilia: Colubridae). Salamandra 45 (1): 15-23 - get paper here
  • Schmidtler, J.F. 1997. Die Zwergnattern (Eirenis modestus-Komplex) des Antitaurus in Süd-Anatolien und ihre geographischen Beziehungen zur begleitenden Herpetofauna. Salamandra 33 (1): 33-60 - get paper here
  • Schmidtler,J.F. 1993. Zur Systematik und Phylogenie des Eirenis modestus-Komplexes in Süd-Anatolien. Spixiana 16 (1): 79-96 - get paper here
  • Seufer, H. 2009. Pflege und Zucht der Levante-Zwergnatter Eirenis levantinus SCHMIDTLER, 1993, sowie Bemerkungen zu anderen Eirenis-Arten. Elaphe 17 (2): 31-38
  • Sindaco, R.; Alberto Venchi & Cristina Grieco 2013. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Annotated Checklist and Distributional Atlas of the Snakes of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia, with an Update to Volume 1. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 543 pp. - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Alberto Venchi, Giuseppe M. Carpaneto, Marco A. Bologna 2000. The Reptiles of Anatolia: a Checklist and Zoogeographical analysis. Biogeographia, 21-2000: 441-554.
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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