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Elaphe carinata (GÜNTHER, 1864)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesElaphe carinata carinata GÜNTHER 1864
Elaphe carinata yonaguniensis TAKARA 1962 
Common NamesE: Taiwan Stink Snake
G: Gekielte Kletternatter 
SynonymPhyllophis carinata GÜNTHER 1864: 298
Phyllophis carinata — GÜNTHER 1888: 170
Elaphe carinata — STEJNEGER 1898
Coluber phyllophis BOULENGER 1891: 280
Coluber phyllophis BOULENGER 1894: 55
Coluber (Elaphis) phyllophis — MÜLLER 1895: 203
Spaniopholis Souliei MOCQUARD 1897
Spaniopholis Souliei — WALL 1903: 93
Spaniopholis kreyenbergi MÜLLER 1907
Elaphe carinata — STEJNEGER 1907: 308
Elaphe osborni SCHMIDT 1925
Coluber camillo-schneideri VOGT 1927
Elaphe carinata souliei — MELL 1931 [1929]
Elaphe kreyenbergi kreyenbergi — MELL 1931 [1929]
Elaphe kreyenbergi osborni — MELL 1931 [1929]
Elaphe carinata — SMITH 1943
Elaphe carinata deqinensis YANG & SU 1983
Elaphe carinata deqenensis YANG & SU 1984
Elaphe carinata — SCHULZ 1996
Elaphe carinata — UTIGER et al. 2002
Elaphe carinata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 261

Elaphe carinata yonaguniensis TAKARA 1962
Elaphe carinata yonaguniensis — GORIS & MAEDA 2004: 227 
DistributionN Vietnam (Hong River),
Taiwan (incl. Lanyu),
China (northward to Henan, Shaanxi, and Gansu; Guangdong, Fuktien, Jiangxi, Chekiang, Kiangsu, Anhwei, Hupeh, Sichuan, Yunnan; south to Huang He River),
Japan (Ryukyu islands incl. Senkaku group)

Type locality: China (Günther, 1864); restricted to Lu Shan, south of Jiujiang (= Kiu Kiang), on Lake Poyang, Jiangxi, China, by Schulz, 1992.

deqenensis: Deqin County, Yunnan, China; restricted to a small area in Yunnan (Deqin and Weixi counties)
.
yonaguniensis: Japan (Ryukyu islands incl. Senkaku group), Taiwan.

Elevation 100-2500 m. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: unknown (fide SANG et al. 2009). 
CommentThe original description is available online (see link below). This species shows a marked ontological shift from striped to banded (see Guo et al. 2012 for photos).

Subspecies: Elaphe carinata deqenensis YANG & SU 1984 has been synonymized with E. c. carinata by Guo et al. 2012.

E. c. yonaguniensis is classified as “vulnerable” in Japan (Ota 2000).

Size: up to 2000 mm in total length 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1891. Description of new oriental reptiles & batrachians. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 279-283 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Dixon, J.R.; Hikida, T. 1995. On the proposed conservation of the specific name of Phyllopis carinata Gunther, 1864 (Reptilia, Serpentes). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 52 (4): 345 - get paper here
  • Goris, R.C. & Maeda, N. 2004. Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger, Malabar, 285 pp.
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1888. On a collection of reptiles from China. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1: 165-172 - get paper here
  • GUO, Peng; Qin LIU, Edward A. MYERS,Shaoying LIU, Yan XU, Yang LIU and Yuezhao WANG 2012. Evaluation of the Validity of the Ratsnake Subspecies Elaphe carinata deqenensis (Serpent: Colubridae). Asian Herpetological Research 3 (3): 219–226 - get paper here
  • Helfenberger, Notker 2001. Phylogenetic relationship of Old World Ratsnakes based on visceral organ topography, osteology, and allozyme variation. Russ. J. Herpetol. (Suppl.): 1-56 - get paper here
  • Hidetoshi Ota 1991. Taxonomic Status of Mabuya multicarinata (Gray, 1845) (Scincidae: Squamata: Reptilia) from Taiwan, with Comments on the Herpetofauna of Lanyu Island. Bull. Coll. Sci., Univ. Ryukyus, No. 51: 11-18
  • Kunz, K. 2015. Dauerbrenner im Terrarium: Nattern Reptilia (Münster) 20 (115): 18-27 - get paper here
  • Lenk, P.; Joger, U. & Wink, M. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships among European ratsnakes of the genus Elaphe Fitzinger based on mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons. Amphibia-Reptilia 22 (3): 329-339 - get paper here
  • Mell,R. 1931. List of Chinese snakes. Lingnan Sci. Jour., Canton, 8 [1929]: 199-219.
  • Mori,M. 1982. Japans Schlangen, Vols. 1-3 (80, 102, 123 pp.). Tokyo (Igaku-Shoin Ltd.) [bilingual edition in German and Japanese]
  • Müller, F. 1895. Siebenter Nachtrag zum Katalog der herpetologischen Sammlung des Basler Museums. Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel 10: 195-215 [1892] - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, A.; Ryabov, S. & Rao, D.-Q. 2003. Venomous snakes in Southern China. Reptilia (GB) (31): 22-29 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, A.; Ryabov, S. & Rao, D.-Q. 2003. Die Giftschlangen Südchinas. Reptilia (Münster) 8 (44): 30-36 - get paper here
  • Ota, H. 2000. Current status of the threatened amphibians and reptiles of Japan. Popul. Ecol. 42: 5-9
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Schulz, K. D. 1996. Eine Monographie der Schlangengattung Elaphe Fitzinger. Bushmaster, Berg (CH): 1-460
  • Schulz, K.-D. 1992. Die hinterasiatischen Kletternattern der Gattung Elaphe, Teil 22 Elaphe carinata (Günther, 1864). Sauria 14 (4): 3-13 - get paper here
  • Schulz, Klaus-Dieter 1996. A monograph of the colubrid snakes of the genus Elaphe Fitzinger. Koeltz Scientific Books, 439 pp.
  • Smith, H. M.; Ota, H.; Wallach, V. 1995. Phyllophis carinata Gunther, 1864 (currently Elaphe carinata; Reptilia, Serpentes): proposed conservation of the specific name. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 52 (2): - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • STEINRÜCKE, Wolfgang 1991. Zur Haltung und Zucht von Elaphe carinata (GÜNTHER 1864). Sauria 13 (2): 7-9 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L. 1910. The batrachians and reptiles of Formosa. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 38: 91-114 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Toriba, M. 1996. On the proposed conservation of the specific name of Phyllophis carinata Gunther, 1864 (currently Elaphe carinata; Reptilia, Serpentes). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 53 (1): 50 - get paper here
  • Utiger, Urs, Notker Helfenberger, Beat Schätti, Catherine Schmidt, Markus Ruf and Vincent Ziswiler 2002. Molecular systematics and phylogeny of Old World and New World ratsnakes, Elaphe Auct., and related genera (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae). Russ. J. Herpetol. 9 (2): 105-124. - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1903. A prodromus of the snakes hitherto recorded from China, Japan, and the Loo Choo Islands, with some notes. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1903: 84-102 - get paper here
  • Wang, Y.Q.; Zhou, K.Y.; Xu, L.S.; Yang, G.; Xu, G.J. 1999. The Evolutionary Relationships of Several Colubrid Snakes Suggested by Sequence Analysis of Cyt b Gene Fragment. Acta Zoologica Sinica 45:332-338
  • Winchell, S. 2003. The wide world of snakes in China. Reptilia (GB) (31): 12-21 - get paper here
  • Winchell, S. 2003. Die vielfältige Welt chinesischer Schlangen. Reptilia (Münster) 8 (44): 20-29 - get paper here
  • Wu, Yan-Qing; Rong-Fang Wang, Long-Hui Lin, Yan-Fu Qu 2014. Microsatellite primer development for the king ratsnakes Elaphe carinata (Colubridae). Conservation Genetics Resources 6 (1): 211-212 - get paper here
  • Yang, Datong; Su, Cheng-Ye 1984. A preliminary study on the subspecies differentiation of Elaphe carinata (Serpentiformes: Colubridae). Zoological Research 5 (2):159-162
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
 
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