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Emys orbicularis (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaEmydidae, Emydinae, Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesEmys orbicularis orbicularis (LINNAEUS 1758)
Emys orbicularis eiselti FRITZ et al. 1998
Emys orbicularis fritzjuergenobsti FRITZ 1993
Emys orbicularis galloitalica FRITZ 1995
Emys orbicularis hellenica (VALENCIENNES 1832)
Emys orbicularis ingauna JESU et al. 2004
Emys orbicularis occidentalis FRITZ 1993
Emys orbicularis persica EICHWALD 1831 
Common NamesE: European Pond Turtle
eiselti: Eiselt’s Pond Turtle
fritzjuergenobsti: Iberian Pond Turtle, Obst’s Pond Turtle
galloitalica: Franco-Italian Pond Turtle
hellenica: Hellenic Pond Turtle
ingauna: Ligurian Pond Turtle
occidentalis: Magreb Pond Turtle
persica: Eastern Pond Turtle
G: Europäische Sumpfschildkröte
NL: moerasschildpad 
SynonymTestudo orbicularis LINNAEUS 1758: 198
Testudo lutaria LINNAEUS 1758: 198
Testudo terrestris GARSAULT 1764
Testudo europaea SCHNEIDER 1783
Testudo punctata GOTTWALD 1792 (nomen nudum)
Testudo pulchella SCHOEPFF 180x
Testudo rotunda MERREM 1820
Testudo lutraria GRAY 1831 (ex errore)
Cistudo hellenica VALENCIENNES 1832
Emys iberica VALENCIENNES 1832 (nomen nudum)
Emys antiquorum VALENCIENNES 1833
Emys turfa MEYER 1835:67
Cistudo Europaea — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 220
Emys hofmanni FITZINGER 1836
Emys lutaria borealis Nilsson 1841:208
Emys europaea — RATHKE 1846: 316
Cistudo Europaea — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 224
Lutremys europaea — GRAY 1856: 264
Cistudo anhaltina GIEBEL 1866:1
Emys orbicularis — BLANFORD 1876
Emys europaea — LEIDY 1888: 127
Emys lutaria taurica MEHNERT 1890
Emys tigris SALVATOR 1897 (nomen nudum)
Emys europaea var. sparsa DÜRIGEN 1897
Emys europaea var. maculosa DÜRIGEN 1897
Emys europaea var. concolor DÜRIGEN 1897
Emys europaea var. punctata DÜRIGEN 1897
Emys orbicularis aralensis NIKOLSKY 1915
Emys orbicularis luteofusca FRITZ 1989
Emys orbicularis colchica FRITZ 1994
Emys orbicularis — ENGELMANN et al. 1993
Emys orbicularis — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 142
Emys orbicularis colchica — DIETRICH 2008
Emys orbicularis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008

Emys orbicularis eiselti FRITZ et al. 1998
Emys orbicularis eiselti — RHODIN et al. 2010

Emys orbicularis fritzjuergenobsti FRITZ 1993
Emys orbicularis fritzjurgenobsti — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Emys orbicularis fritzjurgenobsti — RHODIN et al. 2010

Emys orbicularis galloitalica FRITZ 1995
Emys orbicularis capolongoi FRITZ 1995
Emys orbicularis lanzai FRITZ 1995
Emys orbicularis capolongoi — MUTZ et al. 1999
Emys orbicularis capolongii [sic] — OBST 2003: 16
Emys orbicularis galloitalica — RHODIN et al. 2010

Emys orbicularis hellenica (VALENCIENNES 1832)
Cistuda hellenica VALENCIENNES in BIBRON and BORY 1832:61
Emys antiquorum VALENCIENNES in BORY de SAINT-VINCENT 1833:pl.9
Emys (Emys) hofmanni FITZINGER 1835:123 (nomen novum)
Emys orbicularis hoffmani SCHREIBER 1875:537
Emys orbicularis atra WERNER 1897:15
Emys europaea maculosa DÜRIGEN 1897:15
Emys orbicularis hellenica — RUTSCHKE et al. 2005
Emys orbicularis hellenica — RHODIN et al. 2010

Emys orbicularis ingauna JESU et al. 2004
Emys orbicularis ingauna — RHODIN et al. 2010

Emys orbicularis occidentalis FRITZ 1993
Emys orbicularis hispanica FRITZ, KELLER & BUDDE 1996
Emys orbicularis occidentalis — RHODIN et al. 2010

Emys orbicularis persica EICHWALD 1831
Emys orbicularis iberica EICHWALD 1831
Emys orbicularis kurae FRITZ 1994
Emys orbicularis orientalis FRITZ 1994
Emys orbicularis iberica — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Emys orbicularis persica — RHODIN et al. 2010 
DistributionGermany, Austria, Switzerland, Poland, Hungary, Albania, Yugoslavia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Italy, Sardinia, S France, Corsica, Spain, Balearic Islands: Mallorca, Menorca, Portugal, Greece (including Limnos, Lesbos, Corfu = Corfou, Samothraki), Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania,
Iran (Caspian Sea), Soviet Union, Latvia, Lithuania,
Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia (Schleich et al.).

capolongoi: Sardinia

colchica: NE coastal Turkey

eiselti: SE Turkey, Syria

fritzjuergenobsti: Portugal, Spain, S France, Italy (Thyrrenian coast)

galloitalica: NE Spain, S France, Italy

hellenica: Albania, Bosnia, Hercegovina, Crotia, Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia, Montenegro; Italy, Sicily, Greece, Aegean Turkey.

iberica: Caspian coast from Dagestan to E Transcaucasia

ingauna: Italy

lanzai: Corsica

luteofusca: Turkey (C Anatolia)

occidentalis: Morocco, N Algeria and N Tunisia, Portugal (Malkmus 1995)

orbicularis: Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic (extirpated), France, Republic of Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Italy,Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland,Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, N Spain,Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine.

persica: N Iran to Turkmenistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Republic of Georgia, Iran, Russia (Dagestan)

Introduced to the Balearic Islands (LEVER 2003).

acording to the 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals:
Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Austria,
Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Hercegovina,
Bulgaria, Croatia (including some Adriatic islands),
Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Republic of Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Monte Negro, Moldova, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, C/S Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, W Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

Type locality: S Europe Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
ReproductionEmys orbicularis has temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD, Pieau 1998, GIRONDOT et al. 1994, SARRE et al. 2004). 
TypesHolotype: NMW [eiselti]
Paratypes: NMW [(galloitalica) capolongoi]
Holotype: NMW [kurae]
Paratypes: NMW [orientalis] 
CommentDistribution: Postglacial remains have been found in Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and England.

Although E. orbicularis is found in many places, it is questionable whether it breeds there. Many animals might be escaped pets or otherwise introduced. Especially distribution records from Middle and Northern Europe should be considered with caution. The 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals lists E. orbicularis erroneously from Cyprus. E. o. galloitalica was introduced long ago in Corsica and Sardinia and naturalized there.

Subspecies: In a recent list by OBST (2003) the subspecies Emys orbicularis kurae FRITZ 1994 and E. o. orientalis FRITZ 1994 are not included. Their status remains unclear. Velo-Anton et al. (2008) synonymized hispanica with fritzjuergenobsti. Pedall et al. (2010) and Rhodin et al. (2010) synonymized capolongoi and lanzai with galloitalica.

Synonymy mainly after Kwet (2010) in Reptilia 15 (85): 86 and Rhodin et al. (2010).

Type species: Testudo europaea SCHNEIDER 1783 is the type species of the genus Emys DUMERIL 1806. 
References
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