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Epicrates cenchria (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Boinae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Rainbow Boa
G: Rote Regenbogenboa
Portuguese: Cobra-Arco-Íris, Cobra-de-Veado, Jiboí, Jiboia-Arco-Íris, Jiboia-Vermelha, Salamanta, Serpente-Furta-Cor, Serpente-de-Veado, Suaçu, Surucucu-de-Fogo, Uaçubói 
SynonymBoa Cenchria LINNAEUS 1758: 215
Coluber tamachia SCOPOLI 1788: 28
Boa cenchris GMELIN 1788: 1083
Boa aboma DAUDIN 1803: 132 (nom. subst. pro Boa cenchria LINNAEUS)
Boa ternatea DAUDIN 1803: 153
Boa annulifer DAUDIN 1803: 202
Epicrates cenchria — WAGLER 1830: 168
Epicrates cenchris — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 555
Epicrates cenchris — JAN 1864
Epicrates cenchria — GARMAN 1887: 278
Epicrates cenchris — BOULENGER 1893: 93
Epicrates cenchria gaigei STULL 1938
Epicrates cenchris cenchris — BEEBE 1946: 19
Epicrates cenchria hygrophilus AMARAL 1954
Epicrates cenchria cenchria — DUELLMAN 1978: 226
Epicrates cenchia — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980 (in error)
Epicrates cenchria gaigei — KLUGE 1984: 55
Epicrates cenchris — STARACE 1998: 102
Epicrates cenchria — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 194
Epicrates cenchria — SAVAGE 2002
Epicrates cenchria gaigeae — MICHELS & BAUER 2004
Epicrates cenchria gaigei — DUBOIS 2007
Epicrates cenchria gaigei — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011
Epicrates cenchria cenchria — HENNIG 2012
Epicrates cenchria — WALLACH et al. 2014: 272
Epicrates cenchria gaigei — SWITAK 2014
Epicrates cenchria — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018:
Epicrates cenchria — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 20
Epicrates cenchria — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionFrench Guiana, Suriname, Guyana,
Colombia, Venezuela (Mérida [HR 27: 212]), Peru, Brazil (Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Acre, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo etc.), Bolivia [HR 29: 249], Argentina (Córdoba, San Luis, La Rioja, Corrientes, Formosa, Chaco, Salta)

Type locality: “Surinami”

gaigei: Ecuador; Type locality: Bolivia, Santa Cruz.  
Reproductionovovivparous; there is evidence for parthenogenesis in this species (BOOTH et al. 2015). 
TypesHolotype: NRM (also as NRS) Lin. 6, adult
Holotype: UMMZ 77236 [gaigei]
Holotype: IBSP 8445 [hygrophilus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Distinguished from all continental species of Epicrates by having: (1) noncollapsed lateral ocelli, (2) dorsal ground color pale to yellow reddish, (3) SVL . 1500 mm, (4) lateral process of surangular much expanded latero-posteriorly. Additionally, E. cenchria differ from E. crassus, E. maurus, and E. assisi by having alary process of vomer laterally expanded; from E. crassus and E. maurus, by having ventral scales . 245; from E. crassus by having subcaudal scales generally . 45; from E. alvarezi by having inverted hemipenis bifurcates at fifth and extends to the level of tenth subcaudal. Refer to Tables 6–7 for additional diagnostic features of the continental Epicrates. 
CommentSynonymy mostly after PASSOS & FERNANDES 2008.

Taxonomy: Epicrates cenchria maurus (GRAY 1849) and E. c. crassus, E. c. assisi have been elevated to full species status.

Epicrates cenchria turned out to be more closely related to anacondas (Eunectes) than Caribbean Epicrates (striatus) according to molecular data from Noonan & Chippindale (2006).

Distribution: Not in Costa Rica fide SAVAGE & BOLANOS (2009), nor in Panama. The species in Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad, and Tobago is actually E. maurus. Not in Paraguay after species has been split; only Epicrates alvarezi in Paraguay (Cacciali et al. 2016). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019.

Habitat: in rainforest, at least in Suriname. Semi-arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018).

Type species: Boa Cenchria LINNAEUS 1758: 215 is the type species of the genus Epicrates WAGLER 1830. 
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