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Epictia magnamaculata (TAYLOR, 1940)

IUCN Red List - Epictia magnamaculata - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Western Caribbean Threadsnake, Black Blind Snake 
SynonymGlauconia albifrons — BOULENGER 1893: 63 (part)
Leptotyphlops albifrons — BARBOUR 1914:324 (part)
Glauconia (Leptotyphlops) albifrons — WERNER 1925: 540 (part)
Leptotyphlops magnamaculata TAYLOR 1939: 532
Leptotyphlops phenops phenops — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945: 24 (part)
Leptotyphlops albifrons magnamaculata — DUNN & SAXE 1950
Leptotyphlops phenops — MEYER 1969: 409 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii magnamaculatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leptotyphlops goudotii goudotii — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Leptotyphlops goudoti — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975: 189 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudoti magnamaculata — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS, 1975: 189
Leptotyphlops goudoti magnamaculatus — MACLEAN et al. 1977: 4
Leptotyphlops goudotii magnamaculatus — HAHN 1980: 15
Leptotyphlops goudotti (sic) — WILSON & MEYER 1985: 20
Leptotyphlops goudotii — THOMAS et al. 1985: 220
Leptotyphlops goudotti goudotti (sic) — LANCINI 1986: 170 (part)
Leptotyphlops tenella — MALHOTRA & THORPE 1999: 71
Leptotyphlops tenellus — HENDERSON 2004: 312.
Leptothyphlops (sic) albiprons (sic) — HOWARD et al. 2004: 112
Leptotyphlops magnamaculatus — ADALSTEINSSON 2008: 25–26 37
Leptotyphlops goudotii magnamaculata — ADALSTEINSSON et al. 2009: 17.
Epictia magnamaculata — ADALSTEINSSON et al. 2009
Epictia goudotii — UGUETO & RIVAS 2010: 216
Leptotyphlops albifrons magnamaculatus — CORAL-ENRÍQUEZ 2011: 7.
Crishagenus magnamaculata — HOSER 2012: 33.
Epictia goudotti (sic) — RIVAS et al. 2012: 27.
Leptotyphlops albifrons margaritae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 277.
Epictia magnamaculata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 277
Epictia magnamaculata — MCCRANIE & HEDGES 2016 
DistributionMexico (Quintana Roo: Cozumel Island);
Honduras (Islas de la Bahía [Bay Islands]: Bahía, Barbareta, Cayo Cochino Grande, Cayo Cochino Pequeño, Guanaja, Roatán, Utila; Islas del Cisne [Swan Islands]: Isla Pequeña [Little Swan], and Isla Grande [Big Swan]);
Colombia (Isla San Andres, Isla Providencia, Santa Catalina)

Type locality: Isla Utila, Islas de la Bahia, Honduras, 16°06'N, 86°55'W, elevation 0–20 m  
Reproductionoviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: USNM 54760, female 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Epictia magnamaculata is distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: snout slightly truncate in dorsal and ventral view, rounded in lateral view; supraocular present, not in contact with first supralabial; first supralabial longer, reaching eye level; rostral scale subtriangular in dorsal view; ocular hexagonal with straight shape at the eye level; supraocular longer than frontal scale; temporal indistinct; fused caudals absent; two supralabials (1+1); four infralabials; 245–262 middorsal scales; 237–246 midventral scales; 15–18 subcaudal scales; 10 scales around the middle of tail; seven dorsal scale rows dark brown in the centre of scales with paler border forming longitudinal zig-zag lines; seven lateroventral scale rows brown in the centre of scales with border lighter forming soft zig-zag lines; gular region paler than venter (from PINTO-RICHARD et a. 2010). 
CommentDistribution: this species is an island endemic; not on the Mesoamerican mainland (Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua), nor Costa Rica or Panama, but only on offshore islands fide Savage (2002, and pers. comm. 15. Aug 2015). Not in Venezuela either (Natera-Mumaw et al. 2015). See map in MCCRANIE & HEDGES 2016: Fig. 4. Not on Trinidad, Bonaire I, Margarita I, fide Wallach 2016: 246. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is derived from the Latin magnus, meaning large, and macula, meaning spot, a reference to the large yellow spot on the snout of the snake. 
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Carvajal-Cogollo, J.E.; L.E. Rojas-Murcia. & G. Cárdenas-Arévalo 2020. Reptiles del Caribe colombiano/ Reptiles of the Colombian Caribbean. Tunja: Editorial UPTC, 268 pp. - get paper here
  • Cochran, Doris M. 1961. Type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. [type catalogue] Bull. US Natl. Mus. (220): xvi + 291 pp. - get paper here
  • Duellman, W.E. 1956. A new snake of the genus Leptotyphlops from Michoacan, Mexico. Copeia 1956 (2): 93 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1844. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.6. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 609 pp. - get paper here
  • Dunn, E. R., and L. H. Saxe. 1950. Results of the Catherwood-Chaplin West Indies Expedition, 1948. Part. 5. Amphibians and reptiles of San Andrés and Providencia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 102:141-165 - get paper here
  • FRANCISCO, BÁRBARA CRISTINA S.; ROBERTA R. PINTO & DANIEL S. FERNANDES 2012. Taxonomy of Epictia munoai (Orejas-Miranda, 1961) (Squamata: Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 3512: 42–52 - get paper here
  • Hahn, D.E. 1980. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae. Das Tierreich, De Gruyter (Berlin) 101: 45
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1861. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 2. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 1996. Additions to the known herpetofauna of the Isla de Utila (Islas de la Bahia, Honduras) with description of a new species of the genus Norops (Reptilia: Iguanidae). Senckenbergiana biologica 76 (1/2): 19-28.
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
  • McCranie JR, Hedges SB. 2016. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the Epictia goudotii Species complex (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae: Epictinae) in Middle America and northern South America. PeerJ 4:e1551 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • McNish, T. 2011. La fauna del archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, Colombia, Sudamérica. Colomba Andina de Impresos, ISBN 978-958-99518-1-1
  • Oliver, James A. 1937. Notes on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from the State of Colima, Mexico. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (360): 1-28 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • PINTO, ROBERTA R.; PAULO PASSOS, JOSÉ RANCES CAICEDO-PORTILLA, JUAN CAMILO ARREDONDO & RONALDO FERNANDES 2010. Taxonomy of the Threadsnakes of the tribe Epictini (Squamata: Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) in Colombia. Zootaxa 2724: 1–28 - get paper here
  • Roze, J. A. 1952. Contribución al conocimiento de los ofidios de las familias Typhlopidae y Leptotyphlopidae en Venezuela. Mem. Soc. Cien. nat. La Salle, Caracas, 12 (32): 143-158
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Scott Jr., N.J. & Limerick, S. 1983. Reptiles and Amhibians. In: Janzen, D.H. (ed.) Costa Rican Natural History. Univeristy of Chicago Press, pp. 351-
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1939. Notes on Mexican reptiles and amphibians. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 24 (4): 15-35 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1943. Summary of the collections of snakes and crocodilians made in Mexico under the Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship. Proceeding of the U. S. National Museum, 93 (3169): 393-504 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1940. Herpetological miscellany, no. I. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 26 [1939] (15): 489-571 - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1955. Additions to the known herpetological fauna of Costa Rica with comments on other species. No. II. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 37: 499-575. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van. 2016. Morphological review and taxonomic status of the Epictia phenops species group of Mesoamerica, with description of six new species and discussion of South American Epictia albifrons, E. goudotii, and E. tenella (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae: Epictinae Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 216-374 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wilson, L. D., & HAHN, D. E. 1973. The herpetofauna of the Islas de la Bahía, Honduras. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 17: 93-150. - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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