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Epictia munoai (OREJAS-MIRANDA, 1961)

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesRio Grande do Sul Blind Snake 
SynonymLeptotyphlops munoai OREJAS-MIRANDA 1961
Leptotyphlops munoai — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 38
Epictia munoai — ADALSTEINSSON, BRANCH, TRAPE, VITT & HEDGES 2009
Epictia munoai — WALLACH et al. 2014: 277 
DistributionN Argentina (Corrientes, Misiones), Uruguay, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014)

Type locality: Pozo Hondo, Tambores, Departamento de Tacuarembo, Uruguay Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MBUCV 4547 (Museo de Biologia de la Universidad Central de Venezuela).
Paratypes. MBUCV 4548-49, 4551, Pozo Hondo, Tambores, Tacuarembó Departament, Uruguay, M.A. Klappenback and P.R. San Martin, 12 October, 1956.MHNM 063 PozoHondo, Tambores, Tacuarembó Departament, Uruguay, M.A. Klappenback and P.R. San Martin, September, 1956. MHNM 068, Pozo Hondo, Tambores, Tacuarembó Departament, Uruguay, M.A. Klappenback and P.R. San Martin, September, 1956. MHNM 2771-96, Pozo Hondo, Tambores, Tacuarembó Departament, Uruguay, M.A. Klappenback and P.R. San Martin, September, 1956. AMNH 91508 (MHNM 063H), PozoHondo, Tambores, Tacuarembó Departament, Uruguay, M.A. Klappenback and P.R. San Martin, September, 1956. CM 38970 (This specimen belongs to MHNM 063 sample; however, no additional information could be found [S.P. Rogers, pers. comm.]), Pozo Hondo, Tambores, Tacuarembó Departament, Uruguay, M.A. Klappenback and P.R. San Martin, September, 1956. MNRJ 3306 (MHNM 068C; Fig. 02), Pozo Hondo, Tambores, Tacuarembó Department, Uruguay, M.A. Klappenback and P. R. San Martin, 12 October, 1956. MHNM 071,Pozo Hondo, Tambores, Tacuarembó Department, Uruguay, M.A. Klappenback and P.R. San Martin, 22 September, 1957. MHNM 2765-70, Pozo Hondo, Tambores, Tacuarembó Department, Uruguay, M.A. Klappenback and P.R. San Martin, 22 September, 1957. CAS 93104 (MHNM 0107G), Pozo Hondo, Tambores, Tacuarembó Departament, Uruguay, M.A. Klappenback and P.R. San Martin, 12 October, 1957. USNM 163506 (MHNM 0107J), Pozo Hondo, Tambores, Tacuarembó Departament, Uruguay, M.A. Klappenback and P.R. San Martin, 12 October, 1957. MHNM 2797-2809, Pozo Hondo, Tambores, Tacuarembó Department, Uruguay, M.A. Klappenback and P.R. San Martin, 12 October, 1957. MHNM 0871, Arroyo Cuaró (30°35’S, 056°50’W), Artigas Departament, Uruguay, A.Y. Ximénez, February, 1960. MHNM 0872, no specific locality, Montevideo Departament, Uruguay 1891. MHNM 0873, no specific locality, Cerro Largo Departament, Uruguay, Lucas, 1925. MHNM 0874, Sierra de la Aurora (31°03’S, 055°43’W), Rivera Departament, Uruguay P.R. San Martin, 24 March, 1961. MACN 1048, San Isidro (34°28’S, 058°30’W), San Isidro Department, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, J. Plinch, 1895. MACN 12487, Sierra de la Ventana (38°07’S, 061°58’W), Torniquist Department, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, M. Biraben and I. Scott, February, 1948 (from Francisco et a. 2012). 
CommentDistribution: see map in ARREDONDO & ZAHER 2010.

Diagnosis. Distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) snout truncate or rounded in dorsal view, and rounded in ventral and lateral views; (2) two supralabials (1+1); (3) three infralabials; (4) supraocular scale present, not in contact with first supralabial; (5) rostral scale subtriangular or triangular in dorsal view; (6) ocular subpentagonal, with pointed apex; (7) eyes positioned on midanterior portion of ocular; (8) temporals not distinct; (9) occipitals extend to the level of second supralabial; (10) fused caudals absent; (11) middorsal scales 184-225 in males and 202-226 in females; (12) ventral scales 178-219 in males and 184-211 in females; (13) subcaudals 10-13 in males and 10-14 in females; (14) 10 scales around the middle of the tail; (15) striped pattern RB with ground color whitish-cream; and venter light brown (Francisco et al. 2012). 
References
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • Arredondo, Juan Camilo and Hussam Zaher 2010. A New Species of Epictia (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from Central Brazil. South American J. Herp. 5 (3): 189–198 - get paper here
  • Carreira Vidal, Santiago 2002. Alimentación de los ofidios de Uruguay. Asoc. Herp. Esp., Monograf. Herp. 6, 127 pp. - get paper here
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • FRANCISCO, BÁRBARA CRISTINA S.; ROBERTA R. PINTO & DANIEL S. FERNANDES 2012. Taxonomy of Epictia munoai (Orejas-Miranda, 1961) (Squamata: Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 3512: 42–52 - get paper here
  • Giraudo,A.R. 1999. New records of snakes from Argentina. Herpetological Review 30 (3): 179-181 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Orejas-Miranda, Braulio R. 1961. Una nueva especie de ofidio de la familia Leptotyphlopidae. Act. Biol. Venezuelica, Caracas, 3: 83-97
  • Orejas-Miranda, Braulio R. 1962. Description del Hemipenis de Leptotyphlops munoai Orejas-Miranda, 1961. Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia natural de Montevideo 7 (97): 1-5
  • Prigioni, C.; C. Borteiro; F. Kolenc. 2011. Amphibia and Reptilia, Quebrada de los Cuervos, Departamento de Treinta y Tres, Uruguay. Check List 7 (6): 763-767 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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