You are here » home advanced search search results Epictia phenops

Epictia phenops (COPE, 1875)

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Epictia phenops?

Add your own observation of
Epictia phenops »

We have no photos, try to find some by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common Names 
SynonymStenostoma phenops COPE 1875: 129
Stenostoma phenops COPE 1876: 128 (fide HAHN 1980)
Stenostoma phaenops — COPE 1879: 271
Stenostoma albifrons — BOCOURT in DUMÉRIL et al. 1882: 505 (part)
Stenostoma phenops
Glauconia albifrons — BOULENGER 1893: 63 (part)
Leptotyphlops albifrons — AMARAL 1930: 138 (part)
Leptotyphlops albifrons — GAIGE 1936: 298
Leptotyphlops bakewelli — OLIVER 1937: 17 (in part)
Leptotyphlops phenops - SMITH 1939: 28
Leptotyphlops phenops phenops - SMITH 1943: 444
Leptotyphlops ater phenops — DUNN & SAXE 1950: 159
Leptotyphlops phenops phenops — MERTENS 1952
Leptotyphlops goudotii goudotii — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 169
Leptotyphlops goudotii phenops — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 170
Leptotyphlops phenops - WILSON & HAHN 1973: 120
Leptotyphlops goudoti phenops — HENDERSON & HOEVERS 1975: 32
Leptotyphlops goudoti — FERGUSON 1977: 497
Leptotyphlops goudoti — HAHN 1979: 230.2–3 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotii phenops — HAHN 1980: 15
Leptotyphlops bakewelli — HAHN 1980: 15.
Leptotyphlops gadowi — HAHN 1980: 16
Leptotyphlops goudotii bakewelli — HAHN 1980: 15.
Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli — HAHN 1980: 16.
Leptotyphlops pheonops (sic) — HIMMELSTEIN 1980: 33
Leptotyphlops goudotii — HARTSHORN 1984: 145
Leptotyphlops goudotti (sic) — VILLA et al. 1988: 85 (part)
Leptotyphlops goudotti (sic) phenops — PÉREZ-HIGAREDA & SMITH 1991: 28(part)
Leptotyphlops goudotti phenops — PÉREZ-HIGAREDA & SMITH 1991: 28
Leptotyphlops gaudoti (sic) — CASAS-ANDREU et al. 1996: 34 (part)
Leptothyphlops (sic) goudotti (sic) — IUCN 1999: 37
Leptotyphlops goudotii phenops — LEE 2000
Leptotyphlops goudottii (sic) — FUNDE 2004: 8
Epictia goudotii — ADALSTEINSSON et al. 2009:10) (in part)
Epictia phenops — PINTO et al. 2010: 22) (in part)
Epictia ater — MCCRANIE 2011:43) (in part)
Epictia goudotti phenops — PINTO & CURCIO 2011: 61
Epictia goudoti — CONABIO 2012: 52 (part)
Epictia phenops — WALLACH et al. 2014: 278
Epictia phenops — MCCRANIE 2015
Epictia phenops — MCCRANIE & HEDGES 2016 
DistributionHonduras, Guatemala, Mexico (Coastal and foothill regions on Atlantic slopes from central Veracruz, including Yucatan; and on Pacific slopes from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec into N Chiapas, Oaxaca, Queretaro, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, and Yucatan, Cozumel Island), El Salvador

Type locality: Tehuantepec and “Coban, Guatemala”, restricted to “Santo Domingo Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico” by lectotype designation, 16°19’28"N, 95°14’21"W, elevation 50 m.  
TypesLectotype: USNM 30290, designated by MCCRANIE & HEDGES 2016; Syntypes: USNM 12444, 30289-94; 
CommentSynonymy: mostly after WALLACH 2016: 250. KLUGE 1984 listed Leptotyphlops bakewelli OLIVER 1937 as a synonym of L. goudotii phenops.

Distribution: see map in MCCRANIE & HEDGES 2016: Fig. 4, Wallach 2016: 255 (Map 5).

Diagnosis. Epictia phenops is one of the three species of the E. goudotii complex under study herein that lack rostral-frontal fusion (= has a frontal scale present). Epictia ater and E. bakewelli are distinguished from E. phenops in having rostral-frontal fusion. Epictia goudotii and E. magnamaculata are the two species that agree with E. phenops in having a frontal scale (= lack rostral-frontal fusion). Epictia phenops differs from E. goudotii in having the pale tail spot almost always larger ventrally than dorsally, covering 0–1 scales dorsally and 7–15 scales ventrally (versus pale tail spot, when present, larger dorsally than ventrally, covering 1–4 scales dorsally, 0–1 scales ventrally in E. goudotii). Epictia phenops differs from E. magnamaculata in usually having indistinct dark brown body stripes on a paler brown ground color, an indistinct to absent pale snout spot that is usually confined to the rostral when present, and a usually distinct pale tail spot that is almost always larger ventrally than dorsally (versus distinct alternating black and dark brown zig-zag body stripes, pale snout spot distinct with the spot almost always extending from the rostral onto adjacent edges of upper nasal scales, and a distinct pale tail spot that is almost always larger dorsally than ventrally, covering 2–6 scales dorsally and 2–5 scales ventrally in E. magnamaculata). The rare specimens (3 of 54 individuals) of E. phenops that have rostral-frontal fusion can be difficult to distinguish from E. ater and E. bakewelli, except that some E. phenops tend to have the anterior third of the venter paler brown than the adjacent dorsum (these surfaces usually about same color in E. ater) [from MCCRANIE & HEDGES 2016: 11].

Diagnosis: (1) scale row formula = 14-14-14; (2) midtail scale rows = 10; (3) total length = 53–195 (x– = 131.5) mm; (4) total midodrsals = 216–277 (x– = 243.5); (5) subcaudals = 12–22 (x– = 16.3); (6) relative body pro- portion = 33–77 (x– = 56.9); (7) relative tail length = 3.5%–7.8% (x– = 5.5%); (8) relative tail width = 2.0–5.4 (x– = 3.5); (9) relative rostral width = 0.22–0.48 (x– = 0.37); (10) relative eye size = 0.34–0.46 (x– = 0.42); (10) rostral sagittate with truncated apex; (11) supralabials 2, moderate anterior supralabial reaching mid-eye level; (12) frontal hexagonal, as wide than long; (13) supraoculars large and pentagonal, twice as broad as deep, with posterior borders oblique to those of supranasals; (14) widest anteriormost vertebral scale 4th; (15) parietals and occipitals subequal, with transverse or oblique orientation; (16) infralabials 4; (17) cloacal shield semilunate in shape; (18) head brown, usually with a yellow spot covering entire rostral; (19) dorsum with 3 middorsal brown stripes of triangular-shaped spots bordered by 4 narrow to broad zigzag yellow stripes, 2 midlateral scale rows forming a solid brown stripe (= 5 dark stripes); (20) venter uniform pale brown; (21) midbody stripe formula (3 + 1/1 + 0) and middorsal pattern (3D + 4L); (22) tail with a pale terminal spot covering the 0–3.5 (x = 1.2) dorsal scales and 0–13.5 (x– = 8.5) ventral scales (ventral/dorsal ratio 7.1); and (23) apical spine a small compressed spike (Wallach 2016: 251). 
EtymologyThe origin of the name for this species is derived from the Greek phae, meaning brown, and the Greek nops, meaning blind, referring to a brown blind snake. 
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Cochran, Doris M. 1961. Type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (220): xvi + 291 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1875. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 93-183 [sometimes thought to be published 1876 but see Murphy et al. 2007 for clarification]] - get paper here
  • Dixon, James R. and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2010. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Queretaro, Mexico. Tlalnepantla UNAM, 428 pp.
  • Duellman,W.E. 1956. A new snake of the genus Leptotyphlops from Michoacan, Mexico. Copeia 1956 (2): 93 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1844. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.6. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 609 pp. - get paper here
  • Dunn, E. R., and L. H. Saxe. 1950. Results of the Catherwood-Chaplin West Indies Expedition, 1948. Part. 5. Amphibians and reptiles of San Andrés and Providencia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 102:141-165 - get paper here
  • FRANCISCO, BÁRBARA CRISTINA S.; ROBERTA R. PINTO & DANIEL S. FERNANDES 2012. Taxonomy of Epictia munoai (Orejas-Miranda, 1961) (Squamata: Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 3512: 42–52 - get paper here
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Hahn,D.E. 1980. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae. Das Tierreich, De Gruyter (Berlin) 101: 45
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1861. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 2. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 1996. Additions to the known herpetofauna of the Isla de Utila (Islas de la Bahia, Honduras) with description of a new species of the genus Norops (Reptilia: Iguanidae). Senckenbergiana biologica 76 (1/2): 19-28.
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Leptotyphlops goudotii (DUMÉRIL&BIBRON 1844). Sauria 22 (4): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Lee, J. C. 2000. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the Maya world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
  • Lee, J.C. 1996. The amphibians and reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula. Comstock, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 500 pp.
  • León-Soler, A. & Solórzano, A. 2000. The blind snake Leptotyphlops goudotii (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae), in Murciélagos Islands, Costa Rica. Revista de Biologia Tropical 48 (4): 1019 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
  • McCranie JR, Hedges SB. 2016. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the Epictia goudotii Species complex (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae: Epictinae) in Middle America and northern South America. PeerJ 4:e1551 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von El Salvador. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) (No. 487): 120 pp.
  • Oliver, James A. 1937. Notes on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from the State of Colima, Mexico. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (360): 1-28
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Part II Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Peterson, A.T. et al. 2004. A preliminary biological survey of Cerro Piedra Larga, Oaxaca, Mexico: Birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and plants. Anales del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Serie Zoología 75(2): 439-466
  • PINTO, ROBERTA R.; PAULO PASSOS, JOSÉ RANCES CAICEDO-PORTILLA, JUAN CAMILO ARREDONDO & RONALDO FERNANDES 2010. Taxonomy of the Threadsnakes of the tribe Epictini (Squamata: Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) in Colombia. Zootaxa 2724: 1–28 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roze, J. A. 1952. Contribución al conocimiento de los ofidios de las familias Typhlopidae y Leptotyphlopidae en Venezuela. Mem. Soc. Cien. nat. La Salle, Caracas, 12 (32): 143-158
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Savage, J.M. & Bolaños, F. 2009. A checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: Additions and nomenclatural revisions. Zootaxa 2005: 1–23 - get paper here
  • Scott Jr., N.J. & Limerick, S. 1983. Reptiles and Amhibians. In: Janzen, D.H. (ed.) Costa Rican Natural History. Univeristy of Chicago Press, pp. 351-
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1939. Notes on Mexican reptiles and amphibians. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 24 (4): 15-35 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1943. Summary of the collections of snakes and crocodilians made in Mexico under the Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship. Proceeding of the U. S. National Museum, 93 (3169): 393-504 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1940. Herpetological miscellany, no. I. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 26 [1939] (15): 489-571 - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1955. Additions to the known herpetological fauna of Costa Rica with comments on other species. No. II. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 37: 499-575. - get paper here
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
  • Thomas, R., R. W. McDiarmid, and F. G. Thompson. 1985. Three new species of thread snakes (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from Hispaniola. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 98: 204-220. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van. 2016. Morphological review and taxonomic status of the Epictia phenops species group of Mesoamerica, with description of six new species and discussion of South American Epictia albifrons, E. goudotii, and E. tenella (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae: Epictinae Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 216-374 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wilson, L. D., & HAHN, D. E. 1973. The herpetofauna of the Islas de la Bahía, Honduras. Bull. Florida State Mus., Gainesville, 17: 93-150. - get paper here
  • Wilson, L.D., McCranie, J.R. & Porras, L. 1979. New departmental records of amphibians and reptiles from Honduras. Herpetological Review 10 (1): 25 - get paper here
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

As link to this species use URL address:

without field 'search_param'. Field 'search_param' is used for browsing search result.

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator