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Epictia tenella KLAUBER, 1939

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesGuyana Blind Snake, Wagler's Blind Snake 
SynonymStenostoma albifrons — JAN 1861: 187–188 (part)
Stenostoma albifrons — JAN 1863: 15 (part)
Stenostoma albifrons — 1864: 34 (part)
Stenostoma albifrons — COPE 1862: 350, 1875: 128 (part)
Stenostoma albifrons — COPE 1887: 63 (part)
Typhlops reticulatus — MÜLLER 1878: 588
Stenostoma albifrons — GARMAN 1887: 278 (part.)
Glauconia albifrons — BOETTGER 1891: 347
Glauconia albifrons — BOETTGER 1892: 103
Glauconia albifrons - BOULENGER 1893: 63 (part.)
Glauconia albifrons - BOULENGER 1896: 591 (part.)
Leptotyphlops albifrons — PERRACA 1904: 7
Leptotyphlops albifrons — STEJNEGER 1905: 335
Glauconia albifrons — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 150 (part.)
Leptotyphlops albifrons — AMARAL 1925: 3 (part),
Leptotyphlops albifrons — AMARAL 1929 (part.)
Leptotyphlops tenella KLAUBER 1939: 59
Leptotyphlops albifrons — BEEBE 1946: 12
Leptotyphlops tenella — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1946: 143
Leptotyphlops tenella — BEEBE 1952: 175
Leptotyphlops albifrons albifrons — ROZE 1952: 156
Leptotyphlops albifrons tenella — ROZE 1952: 155
Leptotyphlops albifrons tenella - ROZE 1952: 143
Leptotyphlops tenella — UNDERWOOD 1953: 175 (lower photo)
Leptotyphlops albifrons ssp. — ROZE 1957: 181
Leptotyphlops albifrons albifrons — PETERS 1960a: 526 (part)
Leptotyphlops albifrons albifrons — ROZE 1970: 68
Leptotyphlops tenella — PETERS et al., 1970: 167
Leptotyphlops sp. — MERTENS 1972: 12
Leptotyphlops goudotii goudotii — BOOS 1975: 22
Leptotyphlops goudotii goudotii MACLEAN et al., 1977: 43ff
Leptotyphlops goudotii — EMSLEY 1977: 2, 34
Typhlops reticulatus — HOOGMOED, 1977: 114.
Leptotyphlops tenellus — SCHMIDT 1977: 169–170, figs. 2, 3
Leptotyphlops tenellus — HAHN 1980: 27;
Leptotyphlops albifrons tenella — HAHN 1980: 27
Leptotyphlops tenella — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Stenostoma albifrons — HOOGMOED & GRUBER 1983: 339
Leptotyphlops tenellus — HAHN 1980
Leptotyphlops tenella — STARACE 1998: 81
Leptotyphlops tenella — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 621
Leptotyphlops albifrons — MCDIARMID et al. 1999: 19
Leptotyphlops albifrons tenella — MCDIARMID et al., 1999: 20
Leptotyphlops goudotii — MCDIARMID et al. 1999: 30–31
Leptotyphlops goudotii — BOOS 2001: 41.
Leptotyphlops albifrons — BOOS 2001
Leptotyphlops albifrons tenella — CLAESSEN 2002: 57
Leptotyphlops macrolepis — BERNARDE & ABE 2006: 105, 110.
Stenostoma albifrons — KRETZSCHMAR 2006: 45, 47
Leptotyphlops tenella — DALTRY 2007
Leptotyphlops tenellus — FRANCO & PINTO 2009 (nom. subst.)
Epictia albifrons — ADALSTEINSSON et al. 2009: 31
Epictia tenella — ADALSTEINSSON et al. 2009: 10
Epictia tenela (sic) — SILVEIRA-BÉRNILS & COSTA 2012: 12.
Stenostoma albifrons — HOSER 2012: 34 (part)
Epictia (Leptotyphlops) tenella — NIELSEN et al., 2013: 144.
Epictia albifrons — WALLACH et al. 2014: 279
Epictia tenella — WALLACH et al. 2014: 279
Epictia albiforns (sic) — MUMAW et al., 2015: 432.
Epictia fallax — MUMAW et al., 2015: 294ff, map 59
Epictia albifrons — MUMAW et al. 2015: 291
E. albifrons/E. tenella — MCCRANIE & HEDGES 2016: 4.
Epictia tenella — WALLACH 2016: 328 
DistributionLesser Antilles (maybe introduced, known only from one record in Antigua),
Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Trinidad, SE Venezuela (Cojedes, Amazonas, Bolívar, Distrito Federal, Monagas, and Sucre), Brazil (Amazonas, Amapá, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, and Roraima), NE Peru (Cajamarca, Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto, and San Martín, elevation 150–1,750 m);
Colombia (Meta, Vichada)

Type locality: Kartabo, British Guiana [= Kartabo, New York Zoological Society Tropical Research Laboratory at junction of Cuyuni and Mazaruni rivers, Bartica District, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Guyana, 06°23'N, 58°42'W, elevation 50 m].

albifrons: Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago ?, Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)] Brazil (Para, Rio Grande do Norte), Peru (Pasco: [HR 31: 186]), Argentina (Cordoba), Uruguay, Bolivia; Type locality: “Habitat rarum in adjacentibus urbis Para” [vicinity of Brazil, Belém (01°26'S, 48°29'W)] according to the original description and Vanzolini (1981) Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: AMNH 14269.
Paratypes (7): GUYANA: CUYUNI-MAZARUNI: Kartabo, collected by C. William Beebe in June of 1919, AMNH 14270; TRINIDAD: TUNAPUNA/PIARICO: Saint George: Mount Saint Benedict, collected by M. Graham Netting on 8 September 1927, CM S-4888; collected by M. Graham Netting on 10 September 1927, CM S-4889; collected by M. Graham Netting on 16 September 1927, CM S-4890, CM S-4892, MCZ R-48774 (exchange of CM S-4891 to MCZ on 8 May 1945), SDSNH 32761 (exchange of CM S-4890 to SDNHM on 31 August 1939); and El Dorado, collected by M. Graham Netting on 19 September 1927, CM S-4893. 
CommentIllustrations: Klauber, 1939.

Synonymy: Partly after WALLACH 2016: 315 who also provides a more complete chresonymy and literature references. Listed as synonym of L. albifrons by KORNACKER 1999 and MCDIARMID et al. 1999 (although WALLACH stated that tenellus should be considered as valid species [in McDIARMID et al. 1999: 20]). FRANCO & PINTO 2010 and subsequent authors considered Stenosoma albifrons as a nomen dubium.

Distribution: see map in ARREDONDO & ZAHER 2010 and Wallach 2016: 334. Reports from Ecuador are most likely based on misidentifications (CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2008); Wallach 2016 confirms that reports from Ecuador need confirmation. Not in Paraguay (Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014).

Diagnosis: (1) scale row formula = 14-14-14; (2) midtail scale rows = 10; (3) total length 71–215 (x– = 147.3) mm; (4) total midodrsals = 215–233 (x– = 224.5); (5) subcaudals = 13–20 (x– = 17.2); (6) relative body proportion = 37–60 (x– = 48.5); (7) relative tail length = 5.1%–7.8% (x– = 6.4%); (8) relative tail width = 2.8–4.1 (x– = 3.5); (9) relative rostral width = 0.26–0.34 (x– = 0.29); (10) relative eye size = 0.36–0.46 (x– = 0.41); (10) rostral subtriangular with a truncated apex, extending to pre- or mid-eye level; (11) supralabials 2, tall anterior supralabial in contact with supraocular at mid-eye level; (12) frontal pentagonal, 11⁄2 times broader than deep; (13) supraoculars large and quadrangular with oblique borders, twice as broad as deep; (14) widest anteriormost vertebral scale 5th; (15) parietals deeper than occipitals, oriented transversely; (16) infralabials 4; (17) cloacal shield subtriangular in shape; (18) head brown, with a large yellow spot covering rostral and adjacent scales (supranasals and frontal); (19) dor- sum with 7 dark brown stripes of contiguous ovals bordered by 8 moderate zigzag yellow stripes (= 7 dark stripes); (20) venter pale brown, each scale narrowly outlined in yellow; (21) midbody stripe formula (7 + 0) and middorsal pattern (3); (22) tail with a pale terminal spot covering 0–2 (x– = 1.1) dorsocaudals and 1–3 (x– = 1.8) subcaudals (ventral/dorsal ratio 1.6); and (23) apical spine a thorn-like compressed cone (Wallach 2016: 330). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet of this snake is derived from the Latin tenellus, meaning quite delicate, apparently in reference to the small size and gracile proportions of the snake. 
References
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