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Epictia tenella (KLAUBER, 1939)

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesGuyana Blind Snake, Wagler's Blind Snake 
SynonymStenostoma albifrons WAGLER 1824: 68 (nomen dubium)
Stenostoma albifrons — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 327 (part.)
Stenostoma albifrons — GARMAN 1887: 278 (part.)
Glauconia albifrons - BOULENGER 1893: 63 (part.)
Glauconia albifrons - BOULENGER 1896: 591 (part.)
Glauconia albifrons — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 150 (part.)
Leptotyphlops albifrons - AMARAL 1929 (part.)
Leptotyphlops albifrons — BEEBE 1946: 12
Leptotyphlops tenella KLAUBER 1939: 59
Leptotyphlops albifrons tenella - ROZE 1952: 143
Leptotyphlops tenella — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Leptotyphlops tenella — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 621
Leptotyphlops tenellus — HAHN 1980
Leptotyphlops tenella — STARACE 1998: 81
Leptotyphlops albifrons — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 19
Leptotyphlops albifrons — BOOS 2001
Leptotyphlops tenella — DALTRY 2007
Leptotyphlops tenellus — FRANCO & PINTO 2009 (nom. subst.)
Epictia albifrons — WALLACH et al. 2014: 279
Epictia tenella — WALLACH et al. 2014: 279
Epictia albifrons — NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015: 291 
DistributionLesser Antilles (maybe introduced, known only from one record in Antigua), Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Trinidad, SE Venezuela (Cojedes), Brazil (Amazonas), Peru ?
Colombia (Castro,F. [pers. comm.]).

Type locality: Kartabo, Guyana.

albifrons: Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago ?, Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)] Brazil (Para, Rio Grande do Norte), Peru (Pasco: [HR 31: 186]), Argentina (Cordoba), Uruguay, Bolivia; Type locality: “Habitat rarum in adjacentibus urbis Para” [vicinity of Brazil, Belém (01°26'S, 48°29'W)] according to the original description and Vanzolini (1981) Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: AMNH 14269.
Holotype: ZSM 1348/0 (lost), collected by Spix and Martius expedition to Brazil, 1817-1820 [albifrons] 
CommentIllustrations: Klauber, 1939.

Synonymy: Listed as synonym of L. albifrons by KORNACKER 1999 and MCDIARMID et al. 1999 (although WALLACH stated that tenellus should be considered as valid species [in McDIARMID et al. 1999: 20]). FRANCO & PINTO 2010 and subsequent authors considered Stenosoma albifrons as a nomen dubium.

Distribution: see map in ARREDONDO & ZAHER 2010. Reports from Ecuador are most likely based on misidentifications (CISNEROS-HEREDIA 2008). Not in Paraguay (Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014). 
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1929. Contribuicao ao conhecimento dos ophidios do Brasil. IV. Lista remissiva dos ophidios do Brasil. Mem. Inst. Butantan, Sao Paulo, 4: 71-125
  • Arredondo, Juan Camilo and Hussam Zaher 2010. A New Species of Epictia (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from Central Brazil. South American J. Herp. 5 (3): 189–198 - get paper here
  • Barbour, T., and L. J. Cole. 1906. Vertebrata from Yucatan. Reptilia, Amphibia and Pisces. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 50: 146-159 - get paper here
  • Beebe, William 1946. Field notes on the snakes of Kartabo, British Guiana, and Caripito, Venezuela. Zoologica 31: 11-52
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Boos, H.E.A. 2001. The snakes of Trinidad and Tobago. Texas A&M University Press, 270 pp.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1894. List of reptiles and batachians collected by Dr. T. Bohls near Asuncion, Paraguay. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 13: 342-348 - get paper here
  • Carrillo de Espinoza, Nelly & Icochea, Javier 1995. Lista taxonomica preliminar de los reptiles vivientes del Peru. Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado”, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Serie A, Zoología (49): 1–27
  • Cisneros-Heredia D.F. 2008. Reptilia, Squamata, Leptotyphlopidae, Leptotyphlops, Ecuador: Re-evaluation of the species cited for the country. Check List 4 (2): 178–181 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Daltry, Jennifer C. 2007. An introduction to the herpetofauna of Antigua, Barbuda and Redonda, with some conservation recommendations. Applied Herpetology 4 (2): 97-130.
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1844. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.6. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 609 pp. - get paper here
  • FRANCISCO, BÁRBARA CRISTINA S.; ROBERTA R. PINTO & DANIEL S. FERNANDES 2012. Taxonomy of Epictia munoai (Orejas-Miranda, 1961) (Squamata: Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 3512: 42–52 - get paper here
  • Franco, F.L. & Pinto, R.R. 2009. Stenostoma albifrons WAGLER in SPIX, 1824 as nomen dubium and recognition of the name Leptotyphlops tenellus KLAUBER, 1939 (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Salamandra 45 (4): 239-244 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286. - get paper here
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Hedges SB, Marion AB, Lipp KM, Marin J, Vidal N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Klauber, L. M. 1939. Three new worm snakes of the genus Leptotyphlops. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 9: 59-65. - get paper here
  • Koslowsky,J. 1895. Batracios y reptiles de Rioja y Catamarca. Rev. Mus. La Plata 6: 359-370 - get paper here
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. & Lara, J. 2002. Die Schlangenfauna von Pozuzo (Peru) (Reptilia: Serpentes). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 22 (2): 353-359
  • Markezich, A.L. 2002. New distribution records of reptiles from Western Venezuela. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 69-74 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Miranda, M.E. & Tio Vallejo,M. 1985. El género Leptotyphlops en Argentina (Reptilia: Ophidia). 1: Grupos septemstriatus, dulcis y albifrons. Phisis 43 (105): 71-72
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Perez-Santos, C., & Moreno, A.G. 1991. Serpientes de Ecuador. Mus. Regionale di Sci. Natur., Torino, Monogr. 11, 538 pp.
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Rivas Fuenmayor, Gilson and Cesar Luis Barrio Amorós 2005. New Amphibian and Reptile records from Cojedes State, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 36 (2):205-209. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roze, J. A. 1952. Contribución al conocimiento de los ofidios de las familias Typhlopidae y Leptotyphlopidae en Venezuela. Mem. Soc. Cien. nat. La Salle, Caracas, 12 (32): 143-158
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  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
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