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Eretmochelys imbricata (LINNAEUS, 1766)

IUCN Red List - Eretmochelys imbricata - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaCheloniidae (Carettinae), Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesEretmochelys imbricata imbricata (LINNAEUS 1766)
Eretmochelys imbricata bissa (RÜPPELL1835)
Eretmochelys imbricata squamata AGASSIZ 1857 
Common NamesHawksbill
imbricata: Atlantic Hawksbill
bissa: Pacific Hawksbill
G: Echte Karettschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo imbricata LINNAEUS 1766
Testudo imbricata — SHAW & NODDER 1797: plate 287
Chelonia radiata CUVIER 1829
Testudo imbricata — CUVIER 1831: 15
Chelonia Imbricata — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 547
Eretmochelys imbricata — AGASSIZ 1857
Chelone imbricata — BOULENGER 1889
Eretmochelys imbricata — STEBBINS 1985: 107
Eretmochelys imbricata — ENGELMANN et al. 1993
Eretmochelys imbricata — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 229
Eretmochelys imbricata — COGGER 2000: 182
Eretmochelys imbricata — TRAPE, CHIRIO & TRAPE 2012

Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata (LINNAEUS 1766)
Chelonia pseudo-mydas LESSON 1834 (in BÉLANGER)
Chelonia pseudo-caretta LESSON 1834 (in BÉLANGER)
Onychochelys kraussi GRAY 1873
Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata— MERTENS & MÜLLER 1928
Eretmochelys imbricata — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 76
Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata — CROTHER 2000

Eretmochelys imbricata bissa (RÜPPELL 1835)
Caretta bissa RÜPPELL 1835
Eretmochelys squamata AGASSIZ 1857: 382 (not Testudo squmata GMELIN)
Caretta squamosa GIRARD 1858 (nomen subst. pro E. squamata AGASSIZ)
Caretta rostrata GIRARD 1858: 446
Caretta squamata — SWINHOE 1863: 221
Eretmochelys squamosa — GARMAN 1908: 9
Eretmochelys squamosa — STEJNEGER 1907: 511
Eretmochelys squamata — BARBOUR 1918: 489
Eretmochelys imbricata squamata — CARR 1942
Eretmochelys imbricata bissa — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Eretmochelys imbricata bissa — STEBBINS 1985: 107
Eretmochelys imbricata squamata — MEIRTE 1999
Eretmochelys imbricata bissa — CROTHER 2000 
DistributionAtlantic, Pazific, and Indian oceans, the Red Sea, the British Isles,

Europe: Portugal

Middle East: Jordan

Asia: Vietnam

USA (California, Massachusetts, Washington,
Western Atlantic: Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts,
Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas),

SE Mexico (Yucatan, Baja California), Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama

Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)], Galapagos Islands
Peru, S Brazil, Uruguay

Madagascar, Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands, Pakistan,
NW Africa, Gambia, Tanzania, Israel,

Japan

Australia (New South Wales?, North Territory, Queensland,
Tasmania: King Island, West Australia)
Chagos Archipelago

bissa: Indian and Pacific Oceans, from Madagascar to the Red Sea, Iran; Philippine Sea, the Sea of Japan, N Australia; Americas from California to Peru.

imbricata: Atlantic Ocean; Type locality: "American and Asiatic seas"; restricted to Bermuda Ils. by Smith & Taylor (1950).

squamata: Indian and Pacific Ocean

acording to the 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals:
Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and Black Sea, EC/SE/W/WC Pacific Ocean,
American Samoa, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Australia,
Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, British Indian Ocean Territory, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, China, Colombia, Comoros, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,
Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam,
Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Madagascar,
Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mayotte, Mexico, Montserrat, Mozambique, Myanmar (= Burma), Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Northern Marianas, Oman, Palau,
Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Sao Tome & Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia,
St Vincent, Sudan, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, US Minor Pacific Islands, USA, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet
Nam, Virgin Islands (British), Virgin Islands (US), Western Sahara, Western Samoa, Yemen Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: ZIUU 130 (probably, fide COGGER 1983) 
CommentA special issue on the hawksbill has been published as Chelonian Conservation and Biology Volume 3 (2): 173-367, see http://www.chelonian.org/

Hybridization: FRITZ (1995) reports hybrids between Caretta caretta and Eretmochelys imbricata and between Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata.

Habitat: marine.

Conservation status: critically endangered

Reproduction: oviparous. 
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