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Erythrolamprus epinephalus (COPE, 1862)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesErythrolamprus epinephalus albiventris (JAN 1863)
Erythrolamprus epinephalus bimaculatus (COPE 1899)
Erythrolamprus epinephalus epinephalus (COPE 1862)
Erythrolamprus epinephalus fraseri (BOULENGER 1894)
Erythrolamprus epinephalus juvenalis (DUNN 1937)
Erythrolamprus epinephalus kogiorum (BERNAL-CARLO 1994)
Erythrolamprus epinephalus lamonae (DUNN 1944)
Erythrolamprus epinephalus opisthotaenius (BOULENGER 1908)
Erythrolamprus epinephalus pseudocobella (PERACCA 1914) 
Common Namesalbiventris: S: Culebra boba verde 
SynonymLiophis epinephalus COPE 1862: 78
Liophis epinephelus — BOULENGER 1894 (in error fide SAVAGE 2000: 581)
Leimadophis epinephelus — AMARAL 1929: 165
Leimadophis epinephelus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 143
Liophis epinephelus — KORNACKER 1999: 104
Liophis epinephalus — SAVAGE 2000: 580
Liophis epinephalus — SOLORZANO 2004
Erythrolamprus epinephelus — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Liophis epinephelus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 381

Erythrolamprus epinephalus albiventris (JAN 1863)
Liophis reginae var. albiventris JAN 1863: 294
Liophis reginae var. albiventris — JAN 1866
Opheomorphus alticolus COPE 1868: 102
Liophis albiventris — COPE 1899: 12
Lygophis taeniurus albiventris — AMARAL 1931: 87
Leimadophis albiventris — DUNN 1944: 481
Liophis epinephelus albiventris — DIXON 1983
Erythrolamprus epinephelus albiventris — RAMÍREZ-JARAMILLO 2015
Erythrolamprus epinephelus albiventris — CADENA-ORTIZ et al. 2017
Liophis albiventris — SAVAGE & MCDIARMID 2018: 61

Erythrolamprus epinephalus bimaculatus (COPE 1899)
Liophis bimaculatus COPE 1899: 11
Liophis bipraeocularis BOULENGER 1903: 351
Leimadophis bimaculatus bimaculatus — DUNN 1944: 484
Leimadophis taeniurus bipraeocularis — BEEBE 1946: 30
Liophis epinephelus ecuadoriensis LAURENT 1949
Leimadophis epinephelus ecuadoriensis LAURENT 1949: 8
Leimadophis bimaculatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 143
Leimadophis epinephelus ecuadoriensis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Liophis epinephelus bimaculatus — VANZOLINI in PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1986
Liophis epinephelus bimaculatus — ROJAS-MORALES 2012
Erythrolamprus epinephelus bimaculatus — ESCALONA 2017

Erythrolamprus epinephalus fraseri (BOULENGER 1894)
Liophis fraseri BOULENGER 1894: 131
Leimadophis fraseri — AMARAL 1929: 166
Liophis epinephelus fraseri — DIXON 1983
Liophis fraseri — VANZOLINI in PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1986

Erythrolamprus epinephalus kogiorum (BERNAL-CARLO 1994)
Liophis epinephelus kogiorum BERNAL-CARLO 1994
Liophis miliaris kogiorum — DIXON 2000 (in error ?)
Liophis epinephelus kogiorum — ROJAS-RUNJAIC et al. 2007

Erythrolamprus epinephalus lamonae (DUNN 1944)
Leimadophis bimaculatus lamonae DUNN 1944: 486
Leimadophis bimaculatus lamonae — LAURENT 1949: 8
Liophis bimaculatus lamonae — DIXON 1983
Liophis bimaculatus lamonae — VANZOLINI in PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1986
Liophis epinephelus lamonae — DIXON 1989: 13

Erythrolamprus epinephalus juvenalis (DUNN 1937)
Leimadophis taeniurus juvenalis DUNN 1937: 213
Leimadophis epinephelus juvenalis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970

Erythrolamprus epinephalus opisthotaenius (BOULENGER 1908)
Liophis opisthotaenia BOULENGER 1908
Liophis epinephelus opisthotaenius — ESQUEDA et al. 2007

Erythrolamprus epinephalus pseudocobella (PERACCA 1914)
Liophis pseudocobella PERACCA 1914: 99
Leimadophis pseudocobella — AMARAL 1929: 167
Liophis cobella alticolus AMARAL 1931: 87
Leimadophis pseudocobella — DUNN 1944: 484
Leimadophis pseudocobella — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 148
Liophis epinephelus pseudocobella — DIXON 1983
Liophis epinephelus pseudocobella — ROJAS-MORALES 2012 
DistributionCosta Rica, Panama, Colombia (Valle del Cauca), Venezuela, NW Ecuador, Peru

Type locality: New Granada (Colombia), Truando.

albiventris: Ecuador, Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)]; Type locality: Western Andes of Ecuador and “fra Lacutunga e Guayaquil”, Ecuador.

bimaculatus: Colombia, Venezuela (Mérida, Táchira), Ecuador; Type locality: Colombia. “Presumably from the vicinity of Bogotá” fide DUNN 1944: 484

fraseri: W Ecuador, Peru (Huancabamba); Type locality: Western Ecuador

juvenalis: Costa Rica; Type locality: San Jose, Costa Rica.

kogiorum: Colombia (Magdalena), Venezuela (Zulia); Type locality: Ciudad Perdida,Sierra Nevadade Santa Marta, Departamento de Magdalena, Colombia, 1100 m elevation.

lamonae: Colombia (Andean slopes, 1,500 - 2,600 m elevation), south to EC Ecuador

opisthotaenius: Venezuela (Merida, Barinas, Táchira, Trujillo, Zulia, Falcón) [HR 33: 68], Colombia (Paramo de Tama).

pseudocobella: W Colombia (Andes), Ecuador; Type locality: Angelópolis, Colombia  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 3688
Holotype: IBSP 5312, paratype: IBSP 5313 [Liophis cobella alticolus]
Holotype: ANSP 3687 [juvenalis]
Holotype: MRSN (also as MSNTO) R1512 [pseudocobella]
Holotype: MLS (Instituto La Salle, Bogota) [lamonae]
Holotype: IAvH 3230 (formerly IND 3230), adult male [kogiorum]
Holotype: BMNH 1908.5.29.146-147 [opisthotaenius]
Holotype: MCZ 51329 [opisthotaenius]
Syntypes: MNHN-RA 0204, ZSM 1783/0 (not 1782/0 as mentioned in Savage & McDiarmid 2017), 2 specimens from "Ecuador", collected by M. Wagner, no date [albiventris]
Holotype: USNM 6703 [Opheomorphus alticolus]
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.6.63 [fraseri]
Syntypes: unlocated, reported to be PCM 29 or 42 (Philadelphia Commercial Museum) (5 specimens), not in ANSP fide M. Sabaj and N. Gilmore, pers. comm., 21 May 2019 [bimaculatus] 
CommentSynonymy: partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and updated following DIXON 1983 and VANZOLINI 1986. Cope corrected the name in an erratum sheet to “epinephelus”. However, Savage 2000:581 stated that the original epinephalus is correct. The snakes from Costa Rica (Bebedero, Guanacaste Province, and Irazu, Cartago Province) that Wettstein (1934) identified as Liophis cobella are examples of L. epinephalus (Savage 2000: 581).

Subspecies: Liophis epinephelus kogiorum BERNAL-CARLO 1994 has been listed as Liophis miliaris kogiorum by DIXON 2000 but without justification (maybe in error?). 
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