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Eryx miliaris (PALLAS, 1773)

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Erycinae, Erycidae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesEryx miliaris nogaiorum NIKOLSKY 1910
Eryx miliaris miliaris (PALLAS 1773) 
Common NamesE: Dwarf Sand Boa, Desert Sand Boa, Tartar Sand Boa
G: Wüstensandboa, Östliche Sandboa 
SynonymAnguis miliaris PALLAS 1773
Anguis helluo PALLAS 1814
Eryx miliaris — EICHWALD 1831
Eryx miliaris var. roborowskii BEDRIAGA 1906: 193
Eryx miliaris var. koslowi BEDRIAGA 1906: 193
Eryx miliaris rarus TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx miliaris tritus TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx miliaris incerta TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx tataricus bogdanovi TZAREVSKY 1916
Eryx rickmersi WERNER 1930
Eryx jaculus miliaris — LEVITON 1959
Eryx richmersi WERNER 1930 (fide R. KHALIKOV, pes. comm.)
Eryx miliaris — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Eryx miliaris — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 207
Eryx miliaris — WALLACH et al. 2014: 289

Eryx miliaris nogaiorum NIKOLSKY 1910
Eryx miliaris nogaiorum NIKOLSKY 1910: 90
Eryx miliaris nogaiorum — JONES 2004
Eryx miliaris nogaiorum — VEDMEDERYA et al. 2009 
DistributionS Russia from western border of Caspian Sea (Caucasus) through Kazakhstan, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China (Xinjiang through Gansu to W Nei Mongol = Inner Mongolia, Ningxia),

Type locality: coast of the Caspian Sea

nogaiorum: Type-locality: "Nogai Steppe between the lower reaches of the Terk and Kuma rivers" [north-eastern Precaucasus] fide Nikolsky 1916:34. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: presumed lost fide KLUGE 1993
Syntypes (6): ZMT [Caucasian Museum], as indicated by Nikolsky (1916:34) [nogaiorum] 
CommentSubspecies: ROSS & MARZEC (1990) recognized the black sand boa, Eryx miliaris nogaiorum, as a distinct species; however, they gave no reference to document that change in status. See also reynold et al. 2014 for the relationship of E. miliaris and E. tataricus.

Distribution: The NE Iranian populations of E. tataricus are conspecific with E. miliaris (ESKANDARZADEH et al. 2013). The populations from China may be included in T. tataricus now. Not in Iran fide Zarrintab et al. 2017.

Synonymy after KLUGE 1993. 
  • Bedriaga, JACQUES VON 1907. Verzeichnis der von der Central-Asiatischen Expedition unter Stabs-Kapitän W. Roborowski in den Jahren 1893-1895 gesammelten Reptilien. Annu. Mus. Zool. Acad. Impér. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, 10 (3-4): 159-200 [1905] - get paper here
  • Belik V.P. 2014. To the history of research on the amphibian and reptile fauna in the Volgograd Region. Current Studies in Herpetology 14 (1/2): 3–13. Резюме - get paper here
  • Darewskij,I. 1993. Eryx miliaris - Östliche Sandboa. In: Böhme,W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 3/I., Schlangen (Serpentes) I. Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden, pp. 55-66
  • Dujsebayeva, T. N. (ed.) 2010. Short review of last changes in the checklist of amphibians and reptiles of Kazakhstan. [in Russian]. In: Dujsebayeva, T. N. (ed.) Herpetological Researches in Kazakhstan and adjacent countries, p. 37-52
  • Engelmann,W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • ESKANDARZADEH, Naeimeh; Jamshid DARVISH, Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI, Fereshteh GHASSEMZADEH 2013. Reevaluation of the taxonomic status of sand boas of the genus Eryx (Daudin, 1803) (Serpentes: Boidae) in northeastern Iran. Turkish Journal of Zoology 37: 348-356 - get paper here
  • Habeeb, Israa Nadhim & Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani 2016. Geographical distribution of the snakes of Iraq Mesopotamia Environmental Journal 2 (3): 67-77
  • Jones, C. 2004. Zur Haltung und Pflege von Sandboas. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (47): 31-34 - get paper here
  • Jones, C. 2004. Sandboas. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (47): 20-30 - get paper here
  • Jones, C. 2004. Breeding Eurasian Sand boas: Eryx jaculus, Eryx miliaris und Eryx tataricus. Reptilia (GB) (34): 24-28 - get paper here
  • Jones, C. 2004. Sand Boas. Reptilia (GB) (34): 12-23 - get paper here
  • Jones, C. 2004. Zur Vermehrung eurasischer Sandboas: Eryx jaculus, Eryx miliaris und Eryx tataricus. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (47): 35-39 - get paper here
  • Kluge A G 1993. Calabaria and the phylogeny of erycine snakes. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 107 (4): 293-351
  • Leviton, Alan E. 1959. Report on a collection of reptiles from Afghanistan. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 29 (12): 445-463 - get paper here
  • Leviton,A.E. 1959. Systematics and Zoogeography of Philippine Snakes. Unpublished PhD Thesis.
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1910. Izv. Kavkaz Muz., St. Petersburg (5):86-93
  • Pallas,P.S. 1773. Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reiches, vol. 2. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., St. Petersburg, 744pp. - get paper here
  • Reynolds, R. Graham; Matthew L. Niemiller, Liam J. Revell 2014. Toward a Tree-of-Life for the boas and pythons: Multilocus species-level phylogeny with unprecedented taxon sampling. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 71: 201–213 [published online in 2013] - get paper here
  • Ross, R.A and, G. Marzec 1990. The reproductive husbandry of Pythons and Boas. Inst. Herp. Res., Standford, California.
  • Schmidt, D. & Kunz, K. 2005. Ernährung von Schlangen. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 159 pp. - get paper here
  • Shaposhnikov, A. V. 2001. About new record of Eryx miliaris on the Mt. Bol'shoi Bogdo in Astrakhan' Region, Russia. Russ. J. Herpetol. 8 (1): 79 - get paper here
  • Sorensen, D. 1987. The genus Eryx. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 23(2):21-25 - get paper here
  • Steward, J. W. 1971. The Snakes of Europe. David and Charles, 238 pp.
  • Szczerbak, N.N. 2003. Guide to the Reptiles of the Eastern Palearctic. Krieger, Malabar, FL, 260 pp. - get paper here
  • Tzarevsky, S.F. [surname also translated as Carevskij, Czarevsky, Tsarewsky, Tzarewsky and Zarevskij fide Adler, 2012: 216] 1916. Aperçu des représentants du genre Eryx, principalement de l’Empire Russe et des pays limitrophes. (in Russian) Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Petrograd (1915) 20(1), 340–388 - get paper here
  • Vedmederya, Valeriy; Oleksandr Zinenko, and Andrei Barabanov 2009. An Annotated Type Catalogue of Amphibians and Reptiles in the Museum of Nature at V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine). Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (3): 203-212 - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zarrintab, Mohammad; Konstantin D. Milto, Naeimeh Eskandarzadeh, Bahman Zangi, Mohammad Jahan, Haji Gholi Kami, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani and Mahdi Rajabizadeh 2017. Taxonomy and distribution of sand boas of the genus Eryx Daudin, 1803 (Serpentes: Erycidae) in Iran Zoology in the Middle East 63 (2): 117
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
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