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Eumeces schneiderii (DAUDIN, 1802)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesEumeces schneiderii barani KUMLUTAS, ARIKAN, ILGAZ & KASKA 2007
Eumeces schneiderii pavimentatus (GEOFFROY DE ST. HILAIRE 1827)
Eumeces schneiderii princeps (EICHWALD 1839)
Eumeces schneiderii schneiderii (DAUDIN 1802) 
Common NamesE: Schneider's Skink, Gold Skink
G: Berberskink, Tüpfelskink (see note)
Russian: Длинноногий сцинк 
SynonymScincus Schneiderii DAUDIN 1802: 291
Eumeces pavimentatus GEOFFROY DE ST. HILAIRE 1827: 138 (fide SMITH 1935)
Plestiodon Aldrovandi DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 701
Plestiodon Aldrovandi — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 305
Plestiodon Aldrovandi — FISCHER 1888: 115
Eumeces schneideri — BOULENGER 1890: 219
Eumeces schneideri — TAYLOR 1935
Eumeces schneideri — SMITH 1935: 341
Eumeces schneideri — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Gongylus androvandii [sic] — FRANK & RAMUS 1995: 187
Eumeces schneideri — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 351
Eumeces schneideri — ANDERSON 1999
Novoeumeces schneideri — GRIFFITH, NGO & MURPHY 2000
Eumeces schneideri — BONETTI 2002: 157
Eumeces schneideri — SCHMITZ et al. 2004
Novoeumeces schneideri — VYAS 2007
Eumeces schneideri aldrovandii — CARRANZA et al. 2008 (see note)
Novoeumeces schneideri — VENUGOPAL 2010
Eumeces schneideri — FAIZI et al. 2017
Eumeces schneiderii schneiderii — BAUER et al. 2017: 232
Eumeces schneiderii aldrovandii — BAUER et al. 2017: 232
Eumeces schneiderii — BAR et al. 2021

Eumeces schneiderii barani KUMLUTAS, ARIKAN, ILGAZ & KASKA 2007
Eumeces schneiderii barani — AYAZ et al. 2011

Eumeces schneiderii pavimentatus (GEOFFROY DE ST. HILAIRE 1827)
Scincus pavimentatus GEOFFROY DE ST. HILAIRE 1827: 128
Eumeces pavimentatus var. syriaca BOETTGER 1883
Eumeces schneideri pavimentatus — TAYLOR 1932
Eumeces schneideri pavimentatus — DAREVSKY 1981: 360
Eumeces schneideri pavimentatus — ESTERBAUER 1985
Novoeumeces pavimentatus — GRIFFITH, NGO & MURPHY 2000
Eumeces schneideri pavimentatus — SCHMITZ et al. 2004
Eumeces pavimentatus — MASROOR 2009

Eumeces schneiderii princeps (EICHWALD 1839)
Scincus schneideri DAUDIN 1802
Euprepis princeps EICHWALD 1839: 303
Eumeces schneideri BOULENGER 1887
Eumeces schneiderii princeps MERTENS 1920
Eumeces schneiderii princeps — SCHMIDT 1939
Eumeces schneiderii variegatus SCHMIDT 1939 (fide ANDERSON 1999)
Eumeces schneideri princeps — DAREVSKY 1981: 360
Eumeces schneideri princeps — FRYNTA et al. 1997
Novoeumeces princeps — GRIFFITH, NGO & MURPHY 2000
Eumeces schneideri princeps — ROITBERG et al. 2000
Eumeces schneideri princeps — SCHMITZ et al. 2004
Eumeces princeps — MASROOR 2009
Eumeces schneideri princeps — DAVLETBAKOV et al. 2016 
DistributionE Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sinai, Israel,
Cyprus, Turkey, W Syria, Lebanon,
Jordan, Iran (Kavir desert), Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transcaucasia, Russia (Dagestan), Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, E Republic of Georgia, S Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, NW India

barani: Turkey (Anatolia)

pavimentatus: Syria, Lebanon, Jordan

princeps: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Caucasus, Iran

Type locality: “dans les parties les plus chaudes de l’Amérique, sour-tout à la Jamaïque” [in error]  
TypesHolotype: lost, not located at MNHN (I. Ineich, March 2019); probably lost (fide Anderson 1999, cited in Baha El Din 2006), but listed as MNHN 2961 (2851) by Brygoo 1985.
Holotype: ZDEU 163/2002. female, 25.05.2002, leg. Y. Kumluta , Y. Kaska, Ç. Ilgaz. [barani]
Holotype: MNHN-RA 2961 [pavimentatus]
Lectotype: ZISP 9339, (designated by Taylor “1935” 1936), “Urbs Bazman in Kirmano orient.” [Bazman, Baluchistan-Sistan Province, Iran]. Leg.: N.A. Zarudny, 3.VIII.1898. Paralectotypes: ZISP 9340 (one specimen), “Labe-Ab in Seistano” [Lab-e Bareng, Baluchistan-Sistan Province, Iran]. Leg.: N.A. Zarudny, 2.V.1898.—ZISP 9341 (one specimen), “Schur-Ab in Kirmano orient.” [Shurab, Beluchistan-Sistan Province, Iran]. Leg.: N.A. Zarudny, 11.VIII.1898 [zarudnyi] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). 26 – 34 presacral vertebrae. Limbs relatively slender, lamellae not expanded. Head somewhat depressed in lateral view. Skull with unindented parietal bones and near-complete or full closure of supratemporal fontanelle. Conspicuous sexual dimorphism (except in E. egregius, E. longirostris); males with proportionally larger, broader heads, due to expansion of quadrate bones and adductor mandibularis muscles. Scales of head smooth and shiny, not separated by deep sutures. Two loreals, followed by two presuboculars. Postnasal present or absent. Palpebral and superciliary scales not separated by groove. One to two pairs of nuchal scales. Mid-dorsal scales not broadened, not fused. Lateral preanal scales overlie medial preanal scales (convergent with some sphenomorphine lygosomines). Ear lobules inconspicuous. Juveniles dark, usually strongly striped, tails brilliantly colored, adults show reduction or loss of striping and tail coloration. From temperate North America south to northern Central America, Bermuda, and eastern Asia (Griffith et al. 2000). 
CommentSubspecies after SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996 who treat N. s. meridionalis as separate species but point out its unclear status. N. schneideri blythianus is treated here as full species. Novoeumeces algeriensis has been considered as a subspecies of N. schneideri. Carranza et al. (2008) do not mention Eumeces schneideri aldrovandii in their paper but have submitted DNA sequence data for this taxon (GenBank: EU278237.1). Bauer et al. 2017 listed Eumeces schneiderii aldrovandii as subspecies but commented that its status remains unclear due to the lack of molecular data. Eumeces s. princeps appears to be paraphyletic in Faizi et al. 2021.

Distribution: Plestiodon Aldrovandi occurs in Egypt and Algeria (fide DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854) and China (fide DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 705). See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. No confirmed records from Gujarat fide Patel & Vyas 2019. See Bar et al. 2021 for a map.

Type Species: Scincus pavimentatus GEOFFROY DE ST. HILAIRE 1827 is the type species of the genus Eumeces WIEGMANN 1834: 36. GRIFFITH et al. (2000) designated Scincus pavimentatus GEOFFROY DE ST. HILAIRE 1827 as the type species of the genus Novoeumeces. Note that Novoeumeces GRIFFITH, NGO & MURPHY 2000 was incorrectly named, since according to the ICZN rules, if a genus is split, then the group containing the type species must retain the original name. Note that Duméril & Bibron (1839) listed punctatus as the type species of Eumeces. Scincus punctatus Schneider = Lacerta punctata Linnaeus, now in the genus Riopa (Riopa punctata, from India). Fitzinger (1843) listed rufescens as the type species of Eumeces, currently considered to be a species of Eugongylus (partly based on Glenn Shea, pers. comm. 4 June 2021).

Common name: A note on the German common name (contributed by Andreas Helmdag, pers. comm.): “Der Berberskink war die seinerzeit (historische Terraristik) bekanntere Unterart/Form aus dem E. schneideri/pavimentatus Komplex. Der Trivialname bezog sich auf das Herkunftsgebiet, das ja Barbary (Franz. Nordafrika) genannt wurde. Der Tüpfelskink war ja als solches nicht bekannt. In der Jetztzeit ist der Tierhandel bildungsmässig nicht in der Lage beide Arten zu unterscheiden (optische Ähnlichkeit der Färbung). So wird der Trivialname "missbraucht". Bei Nachfrage wird oft bereitwillig mitgeteilt, das die importierten "Berberskinke" aus Ägypten stammen ... und folglich den Trivialnamen Tüpfelskink tragen müssten.”

NCBI taxonID: 2059310 [barani]
NCBI taxonID: 2059309 [zarudnyi]
NCBI taxonID: 500827 [pavimentatus]
NCBI taxonID: 500828 [princeps]
NCBI taxonID: 500826 [aldrovandii] 
EtymologyNamed after Johann Gottlob Schneider (1750-1822), German zoologist. Note that Scincus Schneiderii is the only “schneiderii” species spelled with two “i” but as original spelling is correct. See Bauer & Lavilla 2022 for biographical notes on Schneider.

The generic name is from Greek eumeces = elongated, or “of good length”. Also, Greek “eumekes” = trim and tall (fide SCHLEICH et al. 1996: 348, Taylor 1936: 30). 
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