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Fowlea sanctijohannis (BOULENGER, 1890)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: St. John's Keelback
G: Sankt-Johannis-Fischnatter 
SynonymTropidonotus sancti-johannis BOULENGER 1890: 350
Tropidonotus sancti-johannis — BOULENGER 1893: 230
Tropidonotus piscator unicolor WALL 1907
Tropidonotus piscator obscurus WALL 1907
Nerodia piscator sancti-johannis — BOURRET 1935
Natrix piscator sancti-johannis — BOURRET 1936
Xenochrophis piscator sanctijohannis — KRAMER 1977
Xenochrophis sanctijohannis — DAS 1996: 60
Xenochrophis sanctijohannis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 799
Fowlea sanctijohannis — PURKAYASTHA et al. 2019
Fowlea sanctijohannis — SINGH et al. 2020
Fowlea sanctijohannis — CHENG et al. 2021
Fowlea sanctijohannis — DEEPAK et al. 2021
Fowlea sanctjohannis — NEPALI & SINGH 2022 (in error) 
DistributionPakistan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir, Uttarakhand), Nepal (above 1000 m elevation), N Myanmar, Bhutan

Type locality: Kashmir  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.13.61 
CommentSynonymy: has been considered as synonym of subspecies of X. piscator (amarasinghe et al. 2022) but listed as valid by others (see synonymy).

Although typical X. sanctijohannis differ from typical X. piscator, there are several intermediate morphs. It differs from X. piscator especially by a patternless body and a slightly higher number of ventral scales. However, the dark patternless body may be an adaptation to the ecological conditions of high mountains rather a taxonomical difference [VOGEL & DAVID 2006]. Vogel & David 2012 consider it as a “montane colour morph of X. piscator”. 
EtymologyNamed after Colonel Sir Oliver Beauchamp Coventry St. John (1837-1891) who worked for the Bengal Army of the Honourable East India Company (1856) and who provided the types to Boulenger. Note his latinized name, “sanctijohannis”. 
  • Amarasinghe, A. A., Bandara, S. K., Weerakkody, S., Campbell, P. D., Marques, D. A., Danushka, A. D., ... & Vogel, G. 2022. Systematics of the Sri Lankan Water Snakes of the Genus Fowlea Theobald 1868 (Reptilia: Natricidae). Herpetologica 78(3) : 201-219 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Bourret, R. 1936. Les Serpents de l'Indochine, vol. 2. Imprimerie Henri Basuyau & Cie, Toulouse.
  • Chettri, Krishna and Damodar Thapa Chhetry 2013. Diversity of Snakes in Sarlahi District, Nepal. Our Nature 11(2): 201-207 - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Kramer, E. 1977. Zur Schlangenfauna Nepals. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 84 (3): 721-761. - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Nepali, P. B., & Singh, N. B. 2022. Species diversity of reptiles in Palpa District, Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Zoology, 6(S1), 20–25 - get paper here
  • Nepali, Pit Bahadur & Nanda Bahadur Singh 2019. Documentation of Snakes Species Richness in Palpa, Nepal. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology 4 (11): 599-604 - get paper here
  • Pandey, Deb Prasad 2018. New records of snakes from Chitwan National Park and vicinity, Central Nepal. Herpetology Notes 11: 679-696 - get paper here
  • Purkayastha, Jayaditya; JATIN KALITA, Rajeev Kungur Brahma, Robin Doley, MADHURIMA DAS 2018. A review of the relationships of Xenochrophis cerasogaster Cantor, 1839 (Serpentes: Colubridae) to its congeners. Zootaxa 4514 (1): 126-136, DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4514.1.10 - get paper here
  • Saikia, U.; Sharma, D.K. & Sharma, R.M. 2007. Checklist of the Reptilian fauna of Himachal Pradesh, India. Reptile Rap (8): 6-9 - get paper here
  • Shrestha, Biraj; Karan Bahadur Shah 2017. Mountain Survey of Amphibians and Reptiles and their Conservation Status in Manaslu Conservation Area, Gorkha District, Western Nepal. Conservation Science, 5: 13-18 - get paper here
  • Singh, A. K., Puri, K., Singh, V. K., & Joshi, R. 2020. First Record of Fowlea Sanctijohannis Boulenger, 1890 (Serpentes: Colubridae) From Uttarakhand state, North India With a Photographic Plate and Comments on its Taxonomic Status. National Academy Science Letters, 1-5 - get paper here
  • Vogel, G. & Patrick David 2006. On the taxonomy of the Xenochrophis piscator complex (Serpentes, Natricidae). Herpetologica Bonnensis II: 241-246 - get paper here
  • VOGEL, Gernot & Patrick DAVID 2012. A revision of the species group of Xenochrophis piscator (Schneider, 1799) (Squamata: Natricidae). Zootaxa 3473: 1–60 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Whitaker, Romulus and Ashok Captain 2004. Snakes of India. Draco Books, 500 pp., reprinted 2007 - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T. 2002. Die Amphibien und Reptilien eines Tieflandfeuchtwald-Schutzgebietes in Vietnam. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 342 pp. - get paper here
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