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Furcifer bifidus (BRONGNIART, 1800)

IUCN Red List - Furcifer bifidus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymChamaeleo bifidus BRONGNIART 1800
Lacerta furcifrons SHAW & NODDER 1807: plate 770
Dicranosaura bifurca var. crassicornis GRAY 1865
Chamaeleo bifurcus — KUHL 1820
Chamaeleo bifidus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 233
Chamaeleo bifurcatus — SWAINSSON 1839 (n. emend. pro Chamaeleo bifurcus KUHL 1820)
Chamaeleon (Furcifer) brogniartii — FITZINGER 1843 (nomen substitutum pro Chameleo bifidus BROGNIART 1800)
Diceros bifurcatus SWAINSON 1839 (nomen emendatum for C. bifurcus)
Dicranosaura bifurca var. crassirostris — BRYGOO 1971
Furcifer bifidus — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 256
Furcifer bifidus — NECAS 1999: 283
Furcifer bifidus — NECAS 2012 
DistributionE Madagascar

Type locality: not given  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 6660
Lectotype: NHMUK 1863.4.16.1, adult male (Previously NHMUK XXV.12.d), purch. Mr. Stevens. Paralectotypes: NHMUK XXV.12.b, subadult male, pres. J. E. Gray; NHMUK XXV.12.c, subadult male, pres. J. E. Gray [crassicornis] 
CommentType species: Chamaeleo bifidus BRONGNIART 1800 is the type species of the genus Furcifer FITZINGER 1843. Other generic synonyms include Diceros Swainson 1839; type species Diceros bifurcatus = Chamaeleo bifidus Brongniart 1800. Apola Gray 1865; type species Chamaeleo lateralis Gray 1831. Sauroceras Gray 1865; type species Chameleo rhinoceratus Gray 1845. Dicranosaura Gray 1865; type species (by subsequent designation) Loveridge 1957- Chameleo bifurcus Gray (= Chamaeleo bifidus Brongniart 1800). Cyneosaura Gray 1865; type species Chamaeleo pardalis Cuvier 1829 (fide TILBURY in TOLLEY & HERREL 2014). 
EtymologyNamed after Latin bifidus = forked, with a cleft.

The genus has been named after Latin furca, a two-pronged fork; and -fer, suffix meaning bearing or bearer (from for(r)e, to bear, to carry): fork-bearer, denoting the forked rostral appendage in male specimens of the type species of this genus. 
  • Brongniart, A. 1800. Essai d'une classification naturelle des reptiles. Bull. Soc. Philomath. 2 (36): 89-91 - get paper here
  • Brygoo, E. R. 1971. Reptiles Sauriens Chamaeleonidae. Genre Chamaeleo. Faune de Madagascar, ORSTOM et CNRS, Paris 33: 1-318.
  • CAMPBELL, PATRICK D; WOLFGANG DENZER 2020. Annotated catalogue of chameleon types in the collection of the Natural History Museum, UK (NHMUK) (Reptilia: Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa 4742 (3): 481–500 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M. C. and G. Bibron. 1836. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 3. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Glaw ,F. & Vences, M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Köln (ISBN 3-929449-01-3)
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). [type catalogue] Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Glaw, F.; Köhler, J. & Vences, M. 2009. A distinctive new species of chameleon of the genus Furcifer (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from the Montagne d’Ambre rainforest of northern Madagascar. Zootaxa 2269: 32–42 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1865. Revision of the genera and species of Chamaeleonidae, with the description of some new species. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1864: 465-479. - get paper here
  • Kuhl,H. 1820. Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie. Hermannsche Buchhandlung, Frankfurt, 152 pp. - get paper here
  • Necas, P. 2012. Chamäleons der Gattung Furcifer. Reptilia (Münster) 17 (95): 20-27 - get paper here
  • Necas, Petr 1999. Chameleons - Nature's Hidden Jewels. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt; 348 pp.; ISBN 3-930612-04-6 (Europe)<br />ISBN 1-57524-137-4 (USA, Canada)
  • Prötzel, David 2018. Auf der Suche nach neuen Chamäleonarten in Ost-Madagaskar. Terraria-Elaphe 2018 (4): 66-69 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, W.; Tamm, K. & Wallikewitz, E. 2010. Chamäleons - Drachen unserer Zeit. Natur und Tier Verlag, 328 pp. [review in Reptilia 101: 64, 2013] - get paper here
  • Shaw,G. & Nodder, Elizabeth (Eds.) 1807. The Naturalist's Miscellany [...], Vol. XVIII. London, Nodder & Co., plates 733-780, 186 unnumbered pages, [published in monthly issues be-tween August 1, 1806, and July 1, 1807]
  • Tolley, K. & Herrel, A. (eds.) 2014. The biology of chameleons. University of California Press, 275 pp. - get paper here
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