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Furina diadema (SCHLEGEL, 1837)

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Red-naped Snake
G: Rothalsotter 
SynonymCalamaria diadema SCHLEGEL 1837: 32
Furina diadema — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1239
Rabdion occipitale GIRARD 1858: 181
Brachysoma diadema — GÜNTHER 1863
Pseudelaps diadema — JAN 1863
Cacophis blackmanii KREFFT 1869: 77
Denisonia bancrofti DE VIS 1911: 23
Pseudelaps diadema — BOULENGER 1896: 319 ?
Brachysoma diadema — WORRELL 1963
Aspidomorphus diadema — MINTON et al. 1970
Furina diadema — COGGER 1983: 225
Furina diadema — WELCH 1994: 63
Furina diadema — COGGER 2000: 651
Furina diadema — WILSON & SWAN 2010
Furina diadema — WALLACH et al. 2014: 298 
DistributionAustralia (New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria)

Type locality: Australia; restricted to Port Jackson, N. S. W. by Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (1854).  
TypesLectotype: MNHN-RA 7668, collected Quoy & Gaimard, designated by Wells & Wellington (1985). Other syntype: MNHN-RA 3941.
Holotype: unknown, from Australia [Rabdion occipitale].
Holotype: AM 6674, from Pine Mt., near Ipswich, Qld. [Cacophis blackmanii]
Syntypes (?): from Stannary Hills, Qld., QM J195, QM J12881 fide Covacevich (1971). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Scanlon (2003) provisionally recognizes “a (Glyphodon (Furina (Neelaps, Simoselaps))) clade which can be diagnosed as follows: nasal and second supralabial separated from the preocular (reversing twice in fossorial lineages); ventral surface white; dorsal scales highly glossed; eyes dark (Scanlon, 1985; Hutchinson, 1990; characters discussed below). Glyphodon spp. lack additional derived states shared by Furina with Simoselaps and Neelaps spp.: postorbital bones with kinetic attachment to parietal (involved in mechanism for maxillary erection and retraction; McDowell, 1969a; Scanlon, 1985); frontal may contact preocular scales (rare to common variant, [Storr, 1968, 1981], never observed in Glyphodon or any other elapid genera, pers. obs.); black head and nape blotches contrasting with the dorsal ground colour and separated by a distinct pale spot or bar; and a reticulate dorsal pattern where each scale may have a black edge, yellow basal spot and red intermediate zone (three distinct pigments; [Storr, 1968]). Cacophis spp. lack most of these derived features and retain the alternate states common to most other Australasian taxa (preocular contacts second labial and frequently nasal; ventrals strongly pigmented; scales less glossy; eyes pale; postorbital lacks anteroposterior kinesis; no contact of preocular and frontal scales; occipital and dorsal ground colour similar; pale spots on dorsal scales single-coloured), and can thus be excluded from the (Glyphodon (Furina (Neelaps, Simoselaps))) clade. Thus Glyphodon and Furina, either alone or together with Simoselaps and Neelaps (Scanlon, 1985, 1988: Fig. I), form a close outgroup to Cacophis (Hutchinson, 1990; Keogh, 1999).” 
CommentSynonymy partly after COGGER 1983.

Type species: Calamaria diadema SCHLEGEL 1837 is the type species of the genus Furina Duméril, 1853.

Synonymy: Furina and Glyphodon were synonymized as Furina by Hutchinson (1990), in part to deal with the apparent problem of classifying Glyphodon barnardi Kinghorn, 1939. Cogger's (1975) key to genera purports to distinguish the genera on the criterion of 'nasal undivided' (Furina) vs. 'nasal divided' (Glyphodon), but in fact G. barnardi has the nasal undivided and would be assigned to Furina by this criterion.

EtymologyNamed after diadema (diadem, headband), alluding “Une tache occipitale blanchâtre, en forme de bande transversale, renfermée dans le noir profond du dessus de la tête, a donné lieu à la dénomination que porte cette nouvelle espèce.” (Schlegel 1837: 32).

The genus Furina was presumably named after Latin furina (probably referring to the goddess Furina, an infernal deity popularly associated with the Furies, but perhaps also meaning the Devil personified, or merely a robber), alluding to the nature of the snakes, although Duméril (1853: 517) gave no hint of his meaning (Meagher 2012). 
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Covacevich, J. 1971. Amphibian and reptile type specimens in the Queensland Museum. [type catalogue] Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 16: 49-68 - get paper here
  • De Vis, C. W. 1911. Description of snakes apparently new. Ann. Qd Mus. 10: 22-25
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1901. Some reptiles and batrachians from Australasia. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 39: 1-14 - get paper here
  • Girard,C. 1858. Descriptions of some new Reptiles, collected by the US. Exploring Expedition under the command of Capt. Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Third Part. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 9: 181-182 [1857] - get paper here
  • Guibé, J. & Roux-Estève, R. 1972. Les types de Schlegel (Ophidiens) présents dans les collections du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Zoologische Mededelingen 47: 129-134 - get paper here
  • Hutchinson M N 1990. The generic classification of the Australian terrestrial elapid snakes. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 29 (3): 397-405 - get paper here
  • Kay, G.M.; D. Michael; M. Crane; S. Okada; C. MacGregor; D. Florance; D. Trengove; L. McBurney; D. Blair; D.B. Lindenmayer. 2013. A list of reptiles and amphibians from Box Gum Grassy Woodlands in south-eastern Australia. Check List 9 (3):476-481 - get paper here
  • Krefft, G. 1869. The Snakes of Australia; an Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue of All the Known Species. Sydney, Govt. Printer xxv + 100 pp. - get paper here
  • Meagher, David 2012. An etymology of the scientific names of Victorian snakes The Victorian Naturalist 129 (2): 54–60
  • Murphy, Michael J. 2016. Survey of the reptiles and amphibians of Yarrigan National Park in the Pilliga forest of northern inland New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 38 (2): 147- - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Shea, G. M. 2021. Dr. John Mair, Captain Collet Barker, and the discovery of the Australian Keelback, Tropidonophis mairii (Serpentes, Colubridae). Bibliotheca Herpetologica 15 (3): 18–28 - get paper here
  • Shine R 1981. Ecology of Australian elapid snakes of the genera Furina and Glyphodon. Journal of Herpetology 15 (2): 219-224 - get paper here
  • Swan, G.; Sadlier, R.; Shea, G. 2017. A field guide to reptiles of New South Wales. Reed New Holland, 328 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Williams D J 1992. Notes on the red-naped snake, Furina diadema (Schlegel, 1837). SYDNEY BASIN NATURALIST 1: 50
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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