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Gavialis gangeticus (GMELIN, 1789)

IUCN Red List - Gavialis gangeticus - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaGavialidae, Crocodylia, (crocodiles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Gharial
G: Gangesgavial 
SynonymLacerta gangetica GMELIN in LINNAEUS 1789: 1057
Crocodilus gavial BONNATERRE 1789: 34
Crocodilus longirostris SCHNEIDER 1801: 160
Crocodilus arctirostris DAUDIN 1802: 393 (nom. subst.)
Crocodilus tenuirostris CUVIER 1807: 66
Rkamphostoma [sic] tenuirostre — WAGLER 1830: 141 (fide D & B 1836)
Gavialis gangeticus — GRAY 1831: 56
Gavialis gangeticus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 134
Gavialis gangeticus — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 150
Gavialis gangeticus — KING & BURKE 1989 
DistributionBangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar (= Burma), N India, Nepal, Pakistan

Type locality: Senegal and Ganges; restricted to Ganges River by Wermuth (1953: 504) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: not located (KING& BURKE 1989: 14) 
CommentExtremely threatened; there may be only a few hundred specimens in the wild (Reptilia, Münster, 11 (5): 7).

Type species: Lacerta gangetica GMELIN in LINNAEUS 1789: 1057 is the type species of the genus Gavialis OPPEL 1811. 
References
  • Anderson, A. 1875. An account of the eggs and young of the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1875 (2) - get paper here
  • Avadhani, R. 2006. The gharial, Gavialis gangeticus, gentle crocodile of India. Reptilia (GB) (47): 53-56 - get paper here
  • Barton, C.G. 1927. The occurrence of the Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) in Burma. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 33: 450-451
  • Bauer A M; Gunther R 1992. A preliminary report on the reptile fauna of the Kingdom of Bhutan with the description of a new species of scincid lizard (Reptilia: Scincidae). Asiatic Herpetological Research 4: 23-36 - get paper here
  • Bonnaterre, P.J. 1789. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature, . . . Erpétologie. Panckoucke, Paris, xxviii+71 pp. (+ plates + index) - get paper here
  • Brochu, Christopher A. 1997. Morphology, Fossils, Divergence Timing, and the Phylogenetic Relationships of Gavialis. Systematic Biology 46 (3): 49-522 - get paper here
  • Bustard, H.R. 1980. Extinction of the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) in Bhutan. British Journal of Herpetology 6 (2): 68
  • Bustard, H.R. 1980. Status of the Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus Gmelin) in Bhutan. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 77: 150
  • Cuvier, G. 1807. Sur les différentes especes de crocodiles vivans et sur leurs caracteres distinctifs. Ann. Natl. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 8-86. - get paper here
  • Cuvier, G. 1831. The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, ... with additional descriptions of all the species hitherto named, and of many not before noticed, by Edward Griffith... and others. Vol. 9. Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London, 481 pp. - get paper here
  • Das, Indraneil 2003. Growth of Knowledge on the Reptiles of India, with an Introduction to Systematics, Taxonomy and Nomenclature. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 100 (2-3): 446-502
  • Daudin 1802. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière des Reptiles; ouvrage faisant suit à l'Histoire naturell générale et particulière, composée par Leclerc de Buffon; et rédigee par C.S. Sonnini, membre de plusieurs sociétés savantes. Vol. 2. F. Dufart, Paris [1802], 432 pp.
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  • Gatesy, J.; Amato, G. 1992. Sequence similarity of 12S ribosomal segment of mitochondrial DNAs of gharial and false gharial. Copeia 1992 (): 241-244. - get paper here
  • Gatesy, John; Amato, George; Norell, Mark; DeSalle, Rob; Hayashi, Cheryl. 2003. Combined Support for Wholesale Taxic Atavism in Gavialine Crocodylians. Systematic Biology 52(3):403-422. - get paper here
  • Gmelin, J.F. 1789. Caroli a Linné Systema naturae. 13. ed., Tom 1 Pars 3. G. E. Beer, Lipsiae. 1033-1516 pp.
  • GRAMENTZ, D. 2012. Zum Schreckruf von Gavialis gangeticus (GMELIN, 1789). Sauria 34 (1): 21-26 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1831. Synopsis Reptilium or short descriptions of the species of reptiles. Part I: Cataphracta, tortoises, crocodiles, and enaliosaurians. Treuttel, Wurz & Co., London, 85 pp.
  • Harshman, John; Huddleston, Christopher J.; Bollback, Jonathan P.; Parsons, Thomas J.; Braun, Michael J. 2003. True and False Gharials: A Nuclear Gene Phylogeny of Crocodylia. Systematic Biology 52(3):386-402. - get paper here
  • Janke, Axel; Gullbert, Anette; Hughes, Sandrine; Aggarwal, Ramesh K.; Arnason, Ulfur. 2005. Mitogenomic analyses place the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) on the crocodile tree and provide Pre-K/T divergence times for most crocodilians. Journal of Molecular Evolution 61(5): 620-626.
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  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Oppel, M. 1811. Die Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen der Reptilien, als Prodrom einer Naturgeschichte derselben. J. Lindauer, München.
  • Parshad, B. 1914. The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 23: 369 - get paper here
  • Schneider, JOHANN GOTTLOB 1801. Historiae Amphibiorum naturalis et literariae. Fasciculus secundus continens Crocodilos, Scincos, Chamaesauras, Boas. Pseudoboas, Elapes, Angues. Amphisbaenas et Caecilias. Frommanni, Jena. 374 pp. - get paper here
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