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Gekko gecko (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
SubspeciesGekko gecko gecko (LINNAEUS 1758)
Gekko gecko azhari MERTENS 1955 
Common NamesE: Tokay Gecko, Tuctoo, Tokeh-tokeh
G: Tokeh
Chinese: 大壁虎 
SynonymLacerta Gecko LINNAEUS 1758: 205
Gekko verticillatus LAURENTI 1768 (fide TAYLOR 1963)
Gekko teres LAURENTI 1768
Lacerta Geko — MÜLLER 1774: 98 (nomen illegitimum)
Gekko aculeatus HOUTTUYN 1782 (non Gecko aculeatus SPIX 1825)
Gekko perlatus HOUTTUYN 1782
Stellio maculatus SCHNEIDER 1792 (fide RÖSLER et al. 2018)
Gekko teres — MEYER 1795: 26
Gekko guttatus DAUDIN 1802
Gekko verus MERREM 1820: 42
Gekko annulatus KUHL 1820: 132
Platydactylus guttatus — WIEGMANN 1834: 235
Platydactylus guttatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 328
Gekko tenuis [HALLOWELL 1857]
Gekko indicus [GIRARD 1858]
Gymnodactylus tenuis HALLOWELL 1856
Gecko guttatus — STOLICZKA 1870: 160
Platydactylus guttatus — BRÜHL 1886
Gymnodactylus tenuis — BOULENGER 1885: 22
Gecko verticillatus [sic] — BOULENGER 1885: 183
Gecko verticillatus [sic] — BOULENGER 1894: 82
Gecko verticillatus — ANDERSSON 1900: 14 (status uncertain)
Gekko gecko — BARBOUR 1912
Gecko verticillatus — DE ROOIJ 1915: 56
Gekko gecko — TAYLOR 1922
Gekko gecko — TAYLOR 1963: 799
Gekko gecko — KLUGE 1993
Gekko gecko — RÖSLER 1995: 120
Gekko gecko — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 231
Gekko gecko — COX et al. 1998: 82
Gekko gecko — ZIEGLER 2002: 165
Gekko df. gecko — JESTRZEMSKI et al. 2013
Gekko gecko — GRISMER & QUAH 2019
Gekko (Gekko) gecko — WOOD et al. 2019
Gekko (Gekko) gecko — WOOD et al. 2020
Geeko gecko — MALSAWMDAWNGLIANA et al. 2022 (in error)

Gekko gecko azhari MERTENS 1955
Gekko gecko azhari — MAHONY et a. 2009 
DistributionBangladesh, India (Assam, Mizoram, Tripura, etc.), Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar (= Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, S China (incl. Hong Kong, Guangxi, Yunnan), Taiwan, Philippines (Palawan, Calamian Islands, Panay, Luzon, Mindoro, Bohol, Masbate, Cebu, Camiguin Sur, Misamis Oriental, Sibuyan, Camiguin Sur),
Indonesia (Borneo, Sumatra, Bali, Java, Sulawesi, Lombok, Flores, Timor, Aru, Komodo, Natuna islands),
Sulu Archipelago, Timor-Leste

USA (introduced to Florida and Hawaii [fide McKeown]), introduced to Martinique (Caribbean)
Introduced to Mexico (Tamaulipas)
Possibly introduced to Brazil (single report from Santa Catarina)
Introduced to Singapore

azhari: Bangladesh

Type locality: “Indiis” (in error); “Java” (designated by MERTENS 1955)

tenuis: Philippines (Luzon); Type locality: Philippines, Luzon, Manila.  
TypesHolotype: unknown (fide NGUYEN et al. 2009)
Holotype: ANSP 7392 [tenuis]
Holotype: SMF 46788 [azhari]
Holotype: USNM 5681 [Gekko indicus] 
CommentDistribution: Records from Australia, the Marianas and Phnpei represent erroneous localities or accidental introductions. A recent accidental introduction into Guam from the Philippines has been documented (McCoid 1993). Reported from but not listed by DAS 1999 for the Andaman Islands. Reported from Taiwan but apparently not established there (OTA 1989). Reported from E Pakistan (Barkal), but KHAN (pers. comm.) states it doesn’t occur there. Synonymy mainly after KLUGE 1993.

Karyotype: The karyotype formula is 2n = 38 = 8m + 2sm + 2st + 26t in red-spotted tokay geckos from Laos compared with 2n = 38 = 8m + 2sm + 28t in black-spotted tokay geckos from Guangxi China, indicating that they may belong to different species (Qinet al. 2012).

Synonymy: partly after Wermuth 1965 and Rösler et al. 2018. Gecko Reevesii GRAY 1831 has been resurrected from synonymy of G. gecko. However, Ho et al. 2023 found paraphyletic clades among G. gecko and G. reevesii. Kluge 1969 synonymized Gymnodactylus tenuis with Gekko gecko.

Type species: Gekko verticillatus LAURENTI 1768 is the type species of the genus Gekko LAURENTI 1768. The name Geeko Pulteney, 1781 is an error typographicus, similar to Geho Smith, 1846 and Gakko Okada, 1938. Platydactylus Goldfuss, 1820 is a junior doxisonym (subjective synonym) of Gekko Laurenti, 1768 (Frétey & Dubois 2019).

Genomics and transcriptomics: Jiang et al. 2022 published a transcriptome analysis of G. gecko. 
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