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Gekko nutaphandi BAUER, SUMONTHA & PAUWELS, 2008

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common Names 
SynonymGekko nutaphandi BAUER, SUMONTHA & PAUWELS 2008
Gekko (Gekko) nutaphandi — WOOD et al. 2019
Gekko (Gekko) nutaphandi — WOOD et al. 2020 
DistributionCW Thailand (Kanchanaburi Province)

Type locality: Thailand, Kanchanaburi Province, Sai Yok District, Sai Yok Noi waterfall (14°25’N, 98°55’E).  
TypesHolotype: CUMZ R. 2003.123, adult female; collected by Montri Sumontha, 26 August 2003. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A medium-sized Gekko, snout-vent length at least 116 mm. Dorsum with 14 rows of prominent, large conical tubercles. Rostral approximately three times wider than deep, without rostral groove, excluded from contact with nostril rim. Precloacal pores (represented by a series of distinct pale scales in females) in a continuous series of 17–22, femoral pores absent. Digit IV of pes with 15 enlarged subdigital scansors. Dorsal pattern of bright white spots arranged in a series of eight transverse bands from nape to sacrum. Iris color in life deep brick red. Gekko nutaphandi may be distinguished from G. subpalmatus, G. melli, G. athymus Brown & Alcala, 1962, G. scientiadventura Rösler et al., 2005, G. tawaensis Okada, 1956 by the presence of dorsal tubercles; from G. tawaensis and two new species from the Ryukyus (Toda et al. 2008) by the presence of precloacal pores in males; from G. japonicus Schlegel, 1836, G. swinhonis, Günther, 1864, G. hokouensis Pope, 1928, G. taibaiensis, Song, 1985, G. auriverrucosus Zhou & Liu, 1982, G. scabridus, Liu & Zhou, 1982, G. chinensis, Gray, 1842, G. yakuensis Matsui & Okana, 1968, G. liboensis, Zhou & Li, 1982, G. badenii, Szczerbak & Nekrasova, 1994, and a new species from China (Zhou & Wang 2008) by larger size (to at least 116 mm SVL versus < 80 mm SVL); from G. vittatus Houttuyn, 1782, G. porosus Taylor, 1922, G. gigante Brown & Alcala, 1978, G. kikuchii Oshima, 1912, G. mindorensis Taylor, 1919, G. monarchus, G. romblon Brown & Alcala, 1978, G. palawanensis Taylor, 1925, G. ernstkelleri Rösler et al., 2006, and a new species from the Philippines (Brown et al. 2008), by the lack of femoral pores; from G. petricolus and G. ulikovskii, Darevsky & Orlov, 1994 by its lack of a rostral groove (versus an X- or Y-shaped groove) and by a more robust body and distinctive pattern of transverse series of white spots (versus scattered pale or pale and dark spots or a greenish-yellow dorsum without spots, respectively); from G. grossmanni, Günther, 1994 by lack of nostril-rostral contact and by larger, keeled to mucronate dorsal tubercles. Gekko nutaphandi is most similar to G. gecko, G. smithii, G. siamensis, G. verreauxi, and G. albofasciolatus Günther, 1872, which have previously been considered to be closely related based on their shared possession of a suite of features: adult SVL > 110 mm; scales on snout as large or slightly larger than those on dorsum of body; > 18 subdigital scansors under digit IV of pes; absence of femoral pores and a relatively low number of precloacal pores (<24) (Ota & Nabhitabhata 1991; Ota et al. 1991). From these species, G. nutaphandi differs in its lower number of subdigital scansors (15 under digit IV of pes). From G. verreauxi it differs in having a greater number of dorsal tubercle rows (14 versus 11), rostral excluded versus entering nos- tril, and a regular pattern of transversely oriented light spots (versus dark spots and irregular blotches); from G. smithii in having more rows of dorsal tubercles (14 versus 8-13), rostral groove absent versus present, and eye color red versus green; from G. albofasciolatus in having more rows of dorsal tubercles (14 versus 10-11), rostral groove absent versus present (though variable in G. albofasciolatus), and eyes red versus green; and from G. gecko in having the rostral groove absent versus present, and eye color red versus pale golden, copper, or brown to olive (see Grossmann 2004 for color photographs). It bears the greatest resemblance to G. siamensis from which it differs in generally having fewer rows of dorsal tubercles (14 versus 14–19, but usually > 15), a much larger internasal scale, fewer ventral scales (30–31 versus 33–36), fewer supralabial scales (12–14 versus 17–21), and red versus green eyes in life. The 17–22 precloacal pores (or pitted scales in females) in G. nutaphandi exceed the ranges for G. verreauxi (13), G. albofasciolatus (14), G. siamensis (10–13), and G. smithii (7-16) and falls within the range of G. gecko (10-24). Although superficially similar to G. siamensis, G. albofasciolatus, and G. smithii in having a relatively drab body with transverse series of pale spots, it differs strongly from typical G. gecko in lacking a bluish-gray dorsum with widely distributed orange to red spots and a series of pale (whitish to gray or sky blue) spots arranged in transverse bands between the occiput and sacrum [from BAUER et al. 2008]. 
CommentAbundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a patronym honoring the late Thai herpetologist Wirot Nutaphand (1932-2005) for his many technical and popular publications on reptiles and amphibians. 
  • Bauer, Aaron M.; Montri Sumontha , & Olivier S. G. Pauwels 2008. A new red-eyed Gekko (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Zootaxa 1750: 32-42 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • MEESOOK, WORAWITOO; MONTRI SUMONTHA, NATTASUDA DONBUNDIT, OLIVIER S. G. PAUWELS 2021. A new cave-dwelling Gekko (Gekko) from Lopburi Province, central Thailand (Squamata, Gekkonidae). Zootaxa 4969: 318–330 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Skipwith, P.L., Bi, K., Oliver, P.M. 2019. Relicts and radiations: Phylogenomics of an Australasian lizard clade with east Gondwanan origins (Gekkota: Diplodactyloidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (2019), doi: - get paper here
  • Wood Jr, Perry L.; Xianguang Guo, Scott L. Travers, Yong-Chao Su, Karen V. Olson, Aaron M. Bauer, L. Lee Grismer, Cameron D. Siler, Robert G. Moyle, Michael J. Andersen, Rafe M. Brown 2019. Parachute geckos free fall into synonymy: Gekko phylogeny, and a new subgeneric classification, inferred from thousands of ultraconserved elements. bioRxiv 717520 [preprint] - get paper here
  • Wood, P. L., Guo, X., Travers, S. L., Su, Y. C., Olson, K. V., Bauer, A. M., Grismer, L. L., Siler, C. D., Moyle, R. G., Andersen, M. J. and Brown, R. M. 2020. Parachute geckos free fall into synonymy: Gekko phylogeny, and a new subgeneric classification, inferred from thousands of ultraconserved elements. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 146: 106731 [corrigendum: MPE 164: 107255] - get paper here
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