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Gekko subpalmatus (GÜNTHER, 1864)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Webbed-toed Gecko
Chinese: 蹼趾壁虎 
SynonymGecko chinensis GRAY 1842
Gecko subpalmatus GÜNTHER 1864: 104
Gecko subpalmatus — BOULENGER 1885: 189
Gekko subpalmatus — SCHMIDT 1927
Gekko subpalmatus — POPE 1935: 463
Gekko subpalmatus — WERMUTH 1965: 41
Gekko subpalmatus — RÖSLER 2000: 82
Gekko subpalmatus — ZHOU & WANG 2008
Gekko (Japonigekko) subpalmatus — WOOD et al. 2019
Gekko (Japonicgekko) subpalmatus — LYU et al. 2021: 247 (in error)
Gekko (Japonigekko) subpalmatus — WOOD et al. 2020 
DistributionS China (incl. Hong Kong, Hainan, westwards through Yunnan, Sichuan, Fujian)

Type locality: China (probably Honkong fide SMITH 1935).  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.25.92, adult female, BMNH (?); other specimens in SYS 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. (1) medium-sized gecko species, SVL 50.9–65.8 mm in adults; (2) tubercles on dorsal body, limbs and tail absent; (3) eye moderate, ED/HL ratio 0.18–0.22; (4) rostral moderate, elongate transversely, RW/HW ratio 0.18–0.22, RW/RH ratio 2.08–2.30; (5) mental elongate transversely, MW/HW ratio 0.10–0.15, MW/ML ratio 1.00–1.70; (6) nares bordered by rostral, internasals 0–1; (7) interorbital scales between anterior corners of the eyes 28–37; (8) midbody scale rows 129–156; (9) ventral scale rows at midbody 39–46; (10) scales between mental and cloacal slit 144–190; (11) subdigital lamellae on first fingers 9–11, on fourth fingers 11–15, on first toes 9–12, on fourth toes 11–14; (12) fingers and toes with distinct webbing; (13) 5–9 precloacal pores in a continuous row in males; (14) a single postcloacal tubercle on both sides; (14) dorsum greyish white to dark brown, with five regular dark bands between nape and sacrum (Fig. 6A).
Hemipenial characteristics (Fig. 3A): (1) hemipenis clavate, bilobed, densely covered with denticulate-seamed calyces; (2) sulcus spermaticus centrifugal, bifurcate at crotch of hemipenis; (3) lateral welt well developed, visible from asulcate side, not in contact with sulcus lip; (4) calyces confined to lobes and distal 2/3 of truncus; (5) tongue-like welt well-developed; (6) apical folds large, comma-shaped, in contact with each other; (7) a small and boomerang-like area on the asulcate side of the lobe center, calyces on this area not well developed (Fig. 3A, Ch. 7) (from Lyu et al. 2021: 247). 
CommentSynonymy: has been considered as a synonym of Gecko chinensis GRAY 1842.

Distribution: Not in Vietnam fide Luu et al. 2015. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet subpalmatus is a compound adjective of “sub-” (‘under’, ‘beneath’ in Latin) and palmâtus (‘palmated’ in Latin), referring to the fingers and toes basally webbed in this species. 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Chan, S.K.F.; Cheung, K.S.; Ho, C.Y.; Lam, F.N. & Tang, W.S. 2006. The geckos of Hong Kong. Hong Kong Biodiversity (13): 1-9
  • Gray, J. E. 1842. Description of some new species of Reptiles, chiefly from the British Museum collection. Zoological Miscellany 2: 57-59. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Herrmann, H-J., Kabisch, K. & Kühnel, K.-D. 1995. Amphibien- und Reptilienbeobachtungen in einigen chinesischen Großstädten. Internationales Symposium für Vivaristik 1995., Mensch-Tier-Umwelt in Lindabrunn (NÖ) Dokumentation: 24-34
  • Lau, Michael W.;Ota, Hidetoshi;Bogadek, Anthony 1997. Chromosome polymorphism and karyotype of Gekko chinensis (Gekkonidae: Reptilia) from Hong Kong. Journal of Herpetology 31 (1): 137-139 - get paper here
  • LUU, VINH QUANG; THOMAS CALAME, TRUONG QUANG NGUYEN, MINH DUC LE& THOMAS ZIEGLER 2015. Morphological and molecular review of the Gekko diversity of Laos with descriptions of three new species. Zootaxa 3986 (3): 279–306 - get paper here
  • LUU, VINH QUANG; TRUONG QUANG NGUYEN, MINH DUC LE, MICHAEL BONKOWSKI, THOMAS ZIEGLER 2017. A new karst dwelling species of the Gekko japonicus group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from central Laos. Zootaxa 4263 (1): 179-193 - get paper here
  • LYU, Z. T., LIN, C. Y., REN, J. L., JIANG, K., ZHANG, Y. P., QI, S., & WANG, J. 2021. Review of the Gekko (Japonigekko) subpalmatus complex (Squamata, Sauria, Gekkonidae), with description of a new species from China. Zootaxa 4951(2): 236-258 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • NGUYEN, TRUONG QUANG; YING-YONG WANG, JIAN-HUAN YANG, TANJA LEHMANN, MINH DUC LE, THOMAS ZIEGLER, MICHAEL BONKOWSKI 2013. A new species of the Gekko japonicus group (Squamata: Sauria: Gekkonidae) from the border region between China and Vietnam. Zootaxa 3652 (5): 501–518 - get paper here
  • Ota H. Lau M W. Weidenhofer T. Yasukawa Y. Bogadek A. 1995. Taxonomic review of the geckos allied to Gekko chinensis Gray 1942 (Gekkonidae Reptilia) from China and Vietnam. Tropical Zoology 8 (1):181-196. - get paper here
  • Pope, CLIFFORD H. 1935. The Reptiles of China. Turtes, Crocodilians, Snakes, Lizards. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York, Nat. Hist. Central Asia, 10: lii, 1-604 - get paper here
  • Rafe M. Brown, Cameron D. Siler, Indraneil Das, Yong Min 2012. Testing the phylogenetic affinities of Southeast Asia’s rarest geckos: Flap-legged geckos (Luperosaurus), Flying geckos (Ptychozoon) and their relationship to the pan-Asian genus Gekko. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63: 915-921 - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1927. Notes on Chinese reptiles. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York, 54 (4): 467-551 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1923. Notes on reptiles and batrachians from Siam and Indo-China (No. 2). J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam 6 (1): 47-53
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Wang, C. G. M. Z. X., Jia, S. Y. K. T. L., & Hu, C. Z. J. 2022. An updated species checklist of amphibians and reptiles in Fujian Province, China. Biodiversity Science, 22090 - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Wermuth, H. 1965. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Gekkonidae, Pygopodidae, Xantusiidae. Das Tierreich (80): 1—246
  • Wood Jr, Perry L.; Xianguang Guo, Scott L. Travers, Yong-Chao Su, Karen V. Olson, Aaron M. Bauer, L. Lee Grismer, Cameron D. Siler, Robert G. Moyle, Michael J. Andersen, Rafe M. Brown 2019. Parachute geckos free fall into synonymy: Gekko phylogeny, and a new subgeneric classification, inferred from thousands of ultraconserved elements. bioRxiv 717520 [preprint] - get paper here
  • Wood, P. L., Guo, X., Travers, S. L., Su, Y. C., Olson, K. V., Bauer, A. M., Grismer, L. L., Siler, C. D., Moyle, R. G., Andersen, M. J. and Brown, R. M. 2020. Parachute geckos free fall into synonymy: Gekko phylogeny, and a new subgeneric classification, inferred from thousands of ultraconserved elements. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 146: 106731 [corrigendum: MPE 164: 107255] - get paper here
  • YANG, JIAN-HUAN; YING-YONG WANG, TIAN-DU ZHANG, YAN-JUN SUN & SHI-SHI LIN 2012. Genetic and morphological evidence on the species validity of Gekko melli Vogt, 1922, with notes on its diagnosis and range extension (Squamata: Gekkonidae). Zootaxa 3505: 67–74 - get paper here
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
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