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Geoemyda spengleri (GMELIN, 1789)

IUCN Red List - Geoemyda spengleri - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Common NamesE: Black-breasted Leaf Turtle
G: Spenglers Zacken-Erdschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo spengleri GMELIN in LINNAEUS 1789
Testudo tricarinata BORY 1804: 308
Geoemyda spengleri — GRAY 1834: 100
Emys Spengleri — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 307
Geomyda tricarinata — BLYTH 1856: 714 (in error)
Nicoria spengleri — BOULENGER 1889: 120
Geoemyda spengleri — STEJNEGER 1907: 501
Geoemyda spengleri sinensis FAN 1931
Geoemyda spengleri spengleri — POPE 1934
Geoemyda spengleri spengleri — MANTHEY 1983
Geoemyda spengleri — XIANGKUI 1994
Geoemyda spengleri — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 446
Geoemyda spengleri — TTWG 2014 
DistributionS China (from Kwangsi, Kwangtung, Guangdong, Hainan Island), Vietnam, Laos

Type locality: unknown (fide KING & BURKE 1989) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: unknown (fide SANG et al. 2009) 
CommentDistribution: The species has been reported from Sumatra and Borneo but its presence there is uncertain, see de Rooij (1915: 298); (Smith 1931:90); Stejneger (1907:501); Bourret (1941:153); and Pope (1935:35) [after KING & BURKE 1989]. Not in Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo) fide TTWG 2014: 378.

Subspecies: Yasukawa et al (1992) raised Geoemyda spengleri japonica to full species status.

Type species: Testudo spengleri GMELIN in LINNAEUS 1789 is the type species of the genus Geoemyda GRAY 1834: 100. 
EtymologyNamed after Lorentz Spengler (1720-1807), intendant of the Royal “Kunstkammer” in Copenhagen from whom Wahlbaum received a shell of this species. Spengler was a conchologist of note. 
  • Anonymous 2016. Testudinate China [in both English and Chinese] Testudinate Industry Branch of the China Fishery Association, published on occasion of WCH8; author not explicitly stated, 54 pp.
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Blyth, E. 1856. Report for october meeting, 1855. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Calcutta, 24: 711 - 723 [1855] - get paper here
  • Bory de Saint-Vincent, J. B. G. M. 1804. Voy. Iles d’Afrique, II.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1889. Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, and Crocodiles in the British Museum (Natural History). British Museum, London, 311 pp.
  • Bourret, R. 1941. Les tortues de l'Indochine. Institut Océanographique l'Indochine 38:1-235
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp.
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Fong, J.J. & Qiao, G.X. 2010. New localities of endangered Chinese turtles from museum specimens and the practical and ethical challenges using and reporting natural history collection data. Zootaxa 2393: 59–68 - get paper here
  • Gad, J. 1994. Die Ultrastruktur der Eischalen von Geoemyda spengleri, lndotestudo elongata und Sacalia bealei (Testudines) Salamandra 30 (4): 277-280 - get paper here
  • Gad, J. 1998. Beobachtungen zum Paarungsverhalten von Geoemyda spengleri Salamandra 34 (4): 323-332 - get paper here
  • Gmelin, J.F. 1789. Caroli a Linné Systema naturae. 13. ed., Tom 1 Pars 3. G. E. Beer, Lipsiae. 1033-1516 pp. - get paper here
  • Gong, Shiping, Haitao Shi; Mo, Y.; Auer, M.; Vargas-Ramírez, M.; Hundsdörfer, A.K. & Fritz, U. 2009. Phylogeography of the endangered black-breasted leaf turtle (Geoemyda spengleri) and conservation implications for other chelonians. Amphibia-Reptilia 30: 57-62 - get paper here
  • Gray, J.E. 1834. Characters of two new genera of reptiles (Geoemyda and Gehyra). Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1834: 99-100 - get paper here
  • Haitao, Shi 2005. Distribution of the Black-Breasted Leaf Turtle (Geoemyda spengleri) on Hainan Island, China. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4 (4): 954-956.
  • HU, Qiping; HUANG Chengxin, XU Shuru, ZHANG Qiuming, MA Ning, ZHONG Hanming 2013. Primary Phylogenies of Mauremys guangxiensis and Mauremys iversoni Inferred from DNA Sequences of Mitochondrial ND4 Gene and Nuclear c-mos Gene. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 32 (2): 180-186 - get paper here
  • Jasser-Häger, I. & Philippen, H.-D. 2003. Bemerkungen zur Haltung und Zucht der Zacken-Erdschildkröte (Geoemyda spengleri GMELIN 1789). Draco 4 (13): 46-52 - get paper here
  • Kunz, K. 2012. Bild schön! Fotografie von Terrarientieren. Reptilia (Münster) 17 (94): 20-26 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Manthey,U. 1983. Exkursion am Mt. Kinabalu (4101 m), Nordborneo, Teil 3: Checkliste der Herpetofauna oberhalb 600 m ü. NN. Herpetofauna 5 (23): 20-31 - get paper here
  • Mell,R. 1938. Beiträge zur Fauna Sinica. VI. Aus der Biologie chinesischer Schildkröten. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, N.F., 7 (3): 390-475.
  • Pawlowski, S. 2007. Sinn und Zweck der Erneuerung von Panzerschilden bei Schildkröten. Elaphe 15 (3): 26-32
  • PAWLOWSKI, S. 2017. Unerwartete Eiablage bei einer Nachzucht der Zacken-Erdschildkröte Geoemyda spengleri (Gmelin, 1789) Sauria 39 (4): 41-46 - get paper here
  • Pawlowski, S. & Krämer, C. 2009. Bemerkungen zur Bestandssituation, Haltung und Nachzucht der Zacken-Erdschildkröte Geoemyda spengleri (GMELIN 1789). Sauria 31 (3): 35-40 - get paper here
  • Pierlioni, Anthony. 2016. The complicated captive world of Vietnamese Black-brested Leaf Turtle, Geoemyda spengleri. Radiata (English edition) 25 (1): 30-35
  • Pierlioni, Anthony. 2016. Die anspruchsvolle Nachzucht der Zacken-Erdschildkröte Geoemyda spengleri. Radiata 25 (1): 30-35
  • Pope, CLIFFORD H. 1935. The Reptiles of China. Turtes, Crocodilians, Snakes, Lizards. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York, Nat. Hist. Central Asia, 10: lii, 1-604
  • Rudloff, H.-W. 1986. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Zacken-Erdschildkröte Geoemyda spengleri spengleri (GMELIN 1789). Herpetofauna 8 (40): 14-20 - get paper here
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Schaefer, I. 2005. Zacken-Erdschildkröten - Die Gattung Geoemyda. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 143 pp. - get paper here
  • Schilde, M. 2004. Asiatische Sumpfschildkröten - Die Familie Geoemydidae in Südostasien, China und Japan. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Shiping, Gong; Haitao Shi, Jonathan J. Fong and Michael Lau. 2009. Recent records of freshwater turtles from Guangdong, China. Turtle and Tortoise Newsletter 13:24-27
  • Smith, Malcolm A. 1931. The Fauna of British India Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Amphibia Volume I.—Loricata, Testudines. Taylor and Francis, London, 185 pp.
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Stuart, Bryan L.; Chris D. Hallam, Sengphachanh Sayavong, Chanthalaphone Nanthavong, Sengmany Sayaleng, Outhai Vongsa, and William G. Robichaud 2011. Two Additions to the Turtle Fauna of Laos. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 10(1):113-116
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • Xiangkui-Y 1994. Fossil and recent turtles of China. Science Press, Beijing. 1994: i-vi, 1-112
  • Yasukawa Y; Ota H; Hikida T 1992. Taxonomic re-evaluation of the two subspecies of Geoemyda spengleri spengleri (Gmelin, 1789) (Reptilia: Emydidae). Japanese Journal of Herpetology 14 (3): 143-159
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