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Glaphyromorphus punctulatus (PETERS, 1871)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Fine-spotted Mulch-skink 
SynonymLygosoma (Lygosoma) punctulatum PETERS 1871: 646
Lygosoma heterodactylum GÜNTHER 1876
Sphenomorphus punctulatus — COGGER 1983
Glaphyromorphus punctulatus — COGGER 2000: 498
Glaphyromorphus punctulatus — WILSON & SWAN 2010
Glaphyromorphus punctulatus — COGGER 2014: 570 
DistributionAustralia (Queensland and offshore islands including Bailey, Dent, East Shelby, Hayman, Hinchinbrook, Lindeman, Magnetic, Shaw)

Type locality: “Port Bowen (N.O. Australien)” [= Port Clinton, Queensland]  
TypesHolotype: ZMB 7295 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): “The genus Glaphyromorphus is a group of small pentadactyl-limbed skinks associated with damp conditions in coastal northern Australia. They are characterised by the following features; supraoculars 4; prefrontals separated; nasals separated; adpressed limbs either fail to meet or just contact; body scales smooth, highly polished in 25-32 rows at mid-body; supralabials 6 to 7; lamellae smooth to bluntly keeled; post-mental contacts, one to two infralabials on each size; SVL 50-90 mm; inhabits tropical savannah woodland and monsoon forest communities.” (WELLS & WELLINGTON 1984: 95)

Comparisons: Greer 1985 presents a table of characteristics of 7 species of Sphenomorphus, 5 of which are now in Glaphyromorphus (namely cracens,pumilus, crassicaudus, mjobergi, punctulatus, darwiniensis, and gracilipes). 
CommentSynonymy after COGGER 1983.

Type Species: Lygosoma (Lygosoma) punctulatum PETERS 1871 is the type species of the genus Glaphyromorphus WELLS & WELLINGTON 1983.

Phylogenetics: see Singhal et al. 2017 and 2018 for a phylogeny of Australian sphenomorphine skinks.

Synonymy: Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic name Rhiannodon Wells 2009 invalid and rejected its use instead of Glaphyromorphus.

Limb morphology: 5 digits, 5 toes (Limbs reduced). The phalanges in the manus and pes are and, compared to the primitive count for skinks of and (Singhal et al. 2018, Cogger 2014)

Morphology: Hutchinson et al. 2021 present a table of morphological character states across 20 Australian sphenomorphine skinks, including this genus. 
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Couper, P., Covacevich, J., Amey, A. & Baker, A. 2006. The genera of skinks (Family Scincidae) of Australia and its island territories: diversity, distribution and identification. in: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M. & Lee, M.S.Y. (eds.). Evolution and Zoogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Australian Scientific Publishing, Sydney, pp. 367-384
  • Greer A E 1985. A new species of Sphenomorphus from northeastern Queensland. Journal of Herpetology 19 (4): 469-473 - get paper here
  • Hutchinson, M. N., Couper, P., Amey, A., & Wilmer, J. W. 2021. Diversity and Systematics of Limbless Skinks (Anomalopus) from Eastern Australia and the Skeletal Changes that Accompany the Substrate Swimming Body Form. Journal of Herpetology 55 (4): 361-384 - get paper here
  • Kaiser, H.; Crother, B.I.; Kelly, C.M.R.; Luiselli, L.; O’Shea, M.; Ota, H.; Passos, P.; Schleip, W.D. & Wüster, W. 2013. Best Practices: In the 21st Century, Taxonomic Decisions in Herpetology are Acceptable Only When Supported by a Body of Evidence and Published via Peer-Review. Herpetological Review 44 (1): 8-23
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig. 1871. Über einige Arten der herpetologischen Sammlung des Berliner zoologischen Museums. Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1871: 644-652 - get paper here
  • Singhal, Sonal; Huateng Huang, Maggie R. Grundler, María R. Marchán-Rivadeneira, Iris Holmes, Pascal O. Title, Stephen C. Donnellan, and Daniel L. Rabosky 2018. Does Population Structure Predict the Rate of Speciation? A Comparative Test across Australia’s Most Diverse Vertebrate Radiation. The American Naturalist - get paper here
  • Skinner, Adam; Mark N. Hutchinson, Michael S.Y. Lee 2013. Phylogeny and Divergence Times of Australian Sphenomorphus Group Skinks (Scincidae, Squamata). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 69 (3): 906–918 - get paper here
  • Wells, R.W. 2009. Some taxonomic and nomenclatural considerations on the class Reptilia in Australia. A review of the genera Eulamprus and Glaphyromorphus (Scincidae), including the description of new genera and species. Australian Biodiversity Record (3): 1–96.
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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