You are here » home search results Glyptemys insculpta

Glyptemys insculpta (LE CONTE, 1830)

IUCN Red List - Glyptemys insculpta - Endangered, EN

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Glyptemys insculpta?

Add your own observation of
Glyptemys insculpta »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaEmydidae, Emydinae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Common NamesE: (North American) Wood Turtle
G: Waldbachschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo insculpta LE CONTE 1830
Emys speciosa GRAY 1831
Emys speciosa var. levigata GRAY 1831
Emys inscripta GRAY 1831 (ex errore)
Clemmys insculpta FITZINGER 1835
Glyptemys insculpta — AGASSIZ 1857
Chelopus insculptus — HENSHAW 1907: 65
Clemmys insculpta — WRIGHT 1918: 54
Clemmys insculpta — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 51
Clemmys insculpta — CROTHER 2000
Glyptemys insculpta — HOLMAN & FRITZ 2001
Calemys insculpta — FELDMAN & PARHAM 2002
Glyptemys insculpta — OBST 2003: 16
Glyptemys insculpta — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2006
Glyptemys insculpta — TTWG 2014 
DistributionCanada (from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, S Ontario),
USA (Maine, SE New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, S New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, N Virginia, West Virginia, NE Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, E Minnesota, NE Iowa)

Type locality: "inhabits the northern states," USA.; restricted to the "vicinity of New York City" by Schmidt (1953:92).  
TypesLectotype: MNHN-RA 6955 and MNHN-RA 9452 (R. Bour, pers. comm., cited in Iverson 1992: 172) (note there is only one specimen with MNHN-RA 9452 being the shell and MNHN-RA 6955 head, tail and members of the same specimen) 
CommentType species: Testudo insculpta LE CONTE, 1830 is the type species of the genus Glyptemys AGASSIZ 1857. Color plate in Hennen (2001).

Fossils: HOLMAN & FRITZ 2001 described Glyptemys valentinensis from the Middle Miocene (Medial to Late Barstovian: ca 14.5-11.5 Ma BP) of Nebraska, which is the closest fossil relative of C. insculpta.

Hybridization: HARDING & DAVIS (1999) reported hybrids between Clemmys insculpta and Emydoidea blandingii. FRITZ (2001: 338 ff) reported a hybrid between Clemmys insculpta and Clemmys marmorata.

Genetics: Montiel et al. (2016) identified a macro-chromosome XX/XY system in the GSD wood turtle Glyptemys insculpta, the youngest known sex chromosomes in chelonians (8–20 My old). Comparative analyses show that their X/Y is homologous to chromosome 4 of Chrysemys picta, chromosome 5 of Gallus gallus (chicken), and thus to the X/Y sex chromosomes of Siebenrockiella crassicollis.

Habitat: freshwater (swamps, bogs, rivers) 
EtymologyThe genus is named after the sculptured carapace (Glyptemys = carved turtle).
Species named after Latin “insculpta”, meaning engraved or sculptured; referring to the growth annuli on the carapacial scutes. 
  • Abdala, V.; Manzano, A.S. & Herrel, A. 2008. The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints?. J. Anat. 213: 159–172
  • Agassiz, Louis 1857. Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America. vol. 1. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, lii + 452 pp.
  • Amato, M.L.; Brooks, R.J. & Fu, J. 2008. A phylogeographic analysis of populations of the wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) throughout its range. Molecular Ecology 17: 570–581
  • Bailey, Reeve M. 1941. The occurrence of the wood turtle in Iowa. Copeia 1941 (4): 265 - get paper here
  • Becker, H. 2002. Haltung, Aufzucht und kontinuierliche Nachzucht bis zur F2-Generation der amerikanischen Waldbachschildkröte, Clemmys insculpta (LE CONTE 1830). Elaphe 10 (2): 19-30 - get paper here
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598
  • Brown, Donald J., Mike Schrage, Dan Ryan, Ron A. Moen, Mark D. Nelson and Richard R. Buech. 2015. Glyptemys insculpta (wood turtle) longevity in the wild. Herpetological Review 46 (2): 243-244 - get paper here
  • Brown, Donald J.; Mark D. Nelson, David J. Rugg, Richard R. Buech, and Deahn M. Donner 2015. Spatial and Temporal Habitat-Use Patterns of Wood Turtles at the Western Edge of Their Distribution Journal of Herpetology Sep 2016, Vol. 50, No. 3: 347-356. - get paper here
  • Cochran, Philip A., Brian D. Jones, Ryan Otto and Andrew P. Kinziger. 2015. Observations on the diet of the Wood Turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) in Northeastern Wisconsin and on its potential role as a seed disperser. Collinsorum 3 (2-4): 28-31
  • Cochrane, Madaline M., Ron A. Moen and Donald J. Brown. 2015. Glyptemys insculpta (wood turtle) nest predation. Herpetological Review 46 (4): 618 - get paper here
  • Cochrane, Madaline M.; Donald J. Brown, Mark D. Nelson, Richard R. Buech, Mike Schrage, Dan Ryan, and Ron A. Moen 2018. Status of a Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) Population in Northeastern Minnesota Herp. Cons. Biol. 13 (1): 273–282 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Coulombe, Marchell G., Steve Mockford and Tom B. Herman. 2011. Conservation genetics of the wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) at the north-eastern limit of its range. The Canadian Herpetologist 1 (1): 5-6
  • Cowin, Susan; Cebek, Joe 2006. Feasibility of using plastron markings in young wood turtles (Glyptemys insculpta) as a technique for identifying individuals. Herpetological Review 37 (3): 305-307. - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Elmberg, J. 1980. Herpetological observations 77-78 [in Vernon county, Wisconsin]. Fältbiologerna Umea.
  • Ernst, C.H. 1972. Clemmys insculpta (Le Conte). Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 125:1-2. - get paper here
  • Ernst, Carl H. 2001. An overview of the North American turtle genus Clemmys Ritgen, 1828. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4 (1): 211-216
  • Ernst, Carl H.; Lovich, Jeffrey E. 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada, 2nd edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, 827 pp. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Feldman, C. R. & Parham, James Ford 2002. Molecular Phylogenetics of Emydine Turtles: Taxonomic Revision and the Evolution of Shell Kinesis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22 (3): 388-398 - get paper here
  • Figueras, Miranda and Burke, Russel L. 2017. Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) Long-term sperm storage Herpetological Review 48 (1): 175 - get paper here
  • Fischer, S.L., Jaskiewicz, L.L. & Lapin, C.N. 2017. Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) Female-Female aggression at nest site. Herpetological Review 48 (4): 835 - get paper here
  • Franek, B L & Ruziecki, M R 2018. Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) Rail Trail nesting challenges Herpetological Review 49 (2): 318 - get paper here
  • Fritz, U. 2001. Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 3/IIIA Schildkröten I. Aula-Verlag, Wiebelsheim. - get paper here
  • Graziano, M; 2018. Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) Subterranean refugia Herpetological Review 49 (4): 732 - get paper here
  • Green, N.B., & Pauley, T.K. 1987. Amphibians and reptiles in West Virginia. Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 241 pp.
  • Harding, J.H. & Davis, S.K. 1999. Clemmys insculpta (wood turtle) and Emydoidea blandingii (Blandings’ turtle). Hybridization. Herpetological Review 30: 225-226 - get paper here
  • Hartzell, S. 2017. Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) and Graptemys geographica (Northern Map Turtle) Interspecific basking. Herpetological Review 48 (3): 622. - get paper here
  • Hartzell, Sean M. and Amber L. Pitt. 2014. Glyptemys insculpta (wood turtle) nesting habitat and behavior. Herpetological Review 45 (4): 687-688 - get paper here
  • Hartzwell, S.M. & Hartzwell, M.B. 2018. Geographic Distribution: Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle). Herpetological Review 49 (1): 72. - get paper here
  • Hennen, U. 2001. Categories of the Red List. Radiata 10 (3): 23-28
  • Henshaw, H.W. 1907. An extension of the range of the Wood Tortoise. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 20: 65 - get paper here
  • Holman, J. Alan; Fritz, Uwe 2001. A new emydine species from the Middle Miocene (Barstovian) of Nebraska, USA with a new generic arrangement for the species of Clemmys sensu McDOWELL (1964). Zoologische Abhandlungen<br />(Dresden) 51(2):331-353 - get paper here
  • Hughes, G. N., L. Monck-Whipp and J. D. Litzgus 2016. Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) potential anting behavior. Herpetological Review 47(3): 445-446. - get paper here
  • Hunter, M.L., Jr., Albright, J., & Arbuckle, J., eds. 1992. The amphibians and reptiles of Maine. Maine Agric. Experiment Station, Orono, Bull. 838 188 pp.
  • Johnston, Ben, Andrew F. Dadje and Richard A. Staffen. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Glyptemys insculpta (wood turtle). Herpetological Review 46 (4): 564 - get paper here
  • Le Conte, J. 1830. Description of the species of North American tortoises. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 3 [1829]: 91-131. - get paper here
  • Litzgus, Jackie. 2013. Wood Turtle - Tortue des bois (Glyptemys insculpta). The Canadian Herpetologist 3 (1): 6-8
  • Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Carl H. Ernst, Evelyn M. Ernst, and Julia L. Riley 2014. A 21-Year Study of Seasonal and Interspecific Variation of Hatchling Emergence in a Nearctic Freshwater Turtle Community: To Overwinter or Not To Overwinter? Herpetological Monographs, 28: 93-109
  • Mara, William P. 1993. The wood turtle. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (January/February): 2-11
  • Marchand, Kelsey A.; Geoffrey N. Hughes, and Jacqueline D. Litzgus 2018. Geographic Variation in Somatic Growth Rate of Wood Turtles (Glyptemys insculpta) Copeia 106 (3): 477-484. - get paper here
  • McCoard, Kathryn R. P.; Noah S. McCoard, Philip J. Turk, and James T. Anderson 2015. Habitat Characteristics That Influence the Occurrence of Wood Turtles at the Southern Limits of Their Range in the Central Appalachians Journal of Herpetology Sep 2016, Vol. 50, No. 3: 381-387. - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2006. Chelonian Illustrations # 24 - North American Wood and Pond Turtles. Reptilia (GB) (44): 83-86 - get paper here
  • McLaughlin, Connor J. and C. Tristan Stayton 2016. Convergent Evolution Provides Evidence of Similar Radiations in Shell Shape in the Turtle Families Emydidae and Geoemydidae Herpetologica Jun 2016, Vol. 72, No. 2: 120-129.
  • Meshaka Jr, Walter E.;, Jane Netting Huff & Robert C. Leberman 2008. Amphibians and Reptiles of Powdermill Nature Reserve in Western Pennsylvania. Journal of Kansas Herpetology 25: 12-18 - get paper here
  • Mitchell, J. C. & Reay, K.K. 1999. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Virginia. Specialty Publication 1, VA Dept of Game and Fisheries, 122 pp. - get paper here
  • Mitchell, J.C. 1994. The reptiles of Virginia. Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, ca. 350 pp.
  • Montiel, E. E; D. Badenhorst, J. Tamplin, R. L. Burke, N. Valenzuela 2016. Discovery of the youngest sex chromosomes reveals first case of convergent co-option of ancestral autosomes in turtles Chromosoma, doi:10. 1007/ s00412-016-0576-7 - get paper here
  • Mullin, D.I., White, R.C., Mullen, J.L., Walton, J.K. & Litzgus, J.D. 2018. Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) Predation. Herpetological Review 49 (1): 106-107. - get paper here
  • Nagle, R. D., et al. 2017. A simple and reliable system for marking hard-shelled turtles: The North American code. Herpetological Review 48 (2): 327-330 - get paper here
  • Norden, Arnold 1967. Another Wood Turtle , Clemmys insculpta from the lower Patapsco State Park Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 3 (3): 54 - get paper here
  • Obst, F.J. 2003. Sumpfschildkröten. Draco 4 (13): 4-18 - get paper here
  • Remsberg, Alysa J., Timothy L. Lewis, Philip W. Huber and Kimberly A. Asmus. 2006. Home ranges of Wood Turtles Glyptemys insculpta in Northern Michigan. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 5 (1): 42-47
  • Robillard, Alexander J., Musnick, Michael and Foley, John 2016. Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) Basking habitat Herpetological Review 47 (4): 652 - get paper here
  • Rollinson, Njal; Robert G. Farmer, Ronald J. Brooks 2012. Widespread reproductive variation in North American turtles: temperature, egg size and optimality. Zoology 115 (3): 160-169 - get paper here
  • Rutherford, Jenny L.; Gary S. Casper and Brent Graves 2016. Factors Affecting Predation on Wood Turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) Nests in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 15 (2): 181-186 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1953. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th ed. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Chicago, 280 pp.
  • Schneider, A. C., Arnold, T. W., Huber, P. W., & Lewis, T. L. 2018. An 18-Year Mark–Recapture Study of Wood Turtles (Glyptemys insculpta) in Michigan. Journal of Herpetology 52 (2): 193–200 - get paper here
  • Seidel, Michael E. & Carl H. Ernst 2017. A Systematic Review of the Turtle Family Emydidae Vertebrate Zoology 67 (1): 1–122 - get paper here
  • Spradling, Theresa A.; Jeffrey W. Tamplin; Samantha S. Dow; K. J. Meyer 2010. Conservation genetics of a peripherally isolated population of the wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) in Iowa. Conservation Genetics 11:1667–1677; DOI 10.1007/s10592-010-0059-y - get paper here
  • Tetzlaff, Sasha J. and Michael J. Ravesi. 2015. Glyptemys insculpta (wood turtle) mortality. Herpetological Review 46 (2): 243 - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. 1983. Clemmys insculpta (LE CONTE 1830), eine bemerkenswerte Sumpfschildkröte aus dem nordöstlichen Nordamerika. Herpetofauna 5 (22): 14-22 - get paper here
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • Vega, Christine and C. Tristan Stayton 2011. Dimorphism in Shell Shape and Strength in Two Species of Emydid Turtle. Herpetologica Dec 2011, Vol. 67, No. 4: 397-405. - get paper here
  • Vraniak, D. A., et al. 2017. Glyptemys insculpta (Wood Turtle) Nest Predation. Herpetological Review 48 (2): 424-425 - get paper here
  • Walde, Andrew D.; J. Roger Bider, Denis Masse, Raymond Saumure, and Rodger D. Titman 2007. Nesting ecology and hatching success of the Wood Turtle (Glyptemys insculpta), in Quebec. Herp. Cons. Biol. 2 (1): 49 - get paper here
  • Williams, Charles E. 2009. Occurrence of Glyptemys insculpta Le Conte in a stream impaired by abandoned mine drainage, Pennsylvania, USA. Herpetology Notes 2: 133-136 - get paper here
  • Willoughby, Janna R.; Mekala Sundaram, Timothy L. Lewis, and Bradley J. Swanson 2013. Population Decline in a Long-Lived Species: The Wood Turtle in Michigan. Herpetologica 69 (2): 186-198. - get paper here
  • Wright, A.H. 1918. Notes on Clemmys. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 31: 51-58 - get paper here
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

As link to this species use URL address:

without field 'search_param'. Field 'search_param' is used for browsing search result.

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator