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Glyptemys muhlenbergii (SCHOEPFF, 1801)

IUCN Red List - Glyptemys muhlenbergii - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaEmydidae, Emydinae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Bog Turtle
G: Mühlenberg-Schildkröte 
SynonymTestudo muhlenbergi SCHOEPFF 1801
Emys biguttata SAY 1824
Emys (Cistuda) carolinae fusca GRAY 1830:7
Emys bipunctata GRAY 1831 (ex errore)
Emys fusca LESUEUR 1831 (nomen nudum)
Clemmys muhlenbergii — FITZINGER 1835
Emys Muhlenbergii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 304
Calemys muhlenbergii — AGASSIZ 1857
Kalemys Muhlenburgii — ENNIS 1861: 124
Geoclemmys mühlenburgii GRAY 1870 (ex errore)
Clemmys nuchalis DUNN 1917
Clemmys muhlenbergii — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 51
Clemmys muhlenbergii — CROTHER 2000
Glyptemys muhlenbergii — HOLMAN & FRITZ 2001
Calemys muhlenbergii — FELDMAN & PARHAM 2002
Glyptemys muhlenbergii — OBST 2003: 16
Glyptemys muhlenbergii — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2006
Clemmys muhlenbergii — JENSEN et al. 2008: 472
Glyptemys muhlenbergii — TTWG 2014 
DistributionUSA (W Massachusetts, Connecticut, NW/E New York, NW/E Pennsylvania, New Jersey, N Delaware, Maryland, S Virginia and adjacent W North Carolina, N South Carolina, Georgia, E Tennessee)

Type locality: Lancaster, Pennsylvania.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: AMNH 8430. Paratypes: AMNH 8389; MCZ 12498, USNM [nuchalis] 
Diagnosis 
CommentThis is one of the 25 most endangered turtle species according to a 2003 assessment by the IUCN.

Synonymy: partly after RHODIN et al. 2010.

Habitat: freshwater (swamps, bogs, rivers) 
EtymologyNamed after German-born, American pastor-naturalist, Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg (1753-1815). 
References
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  • Agassiz, Louis 1857. Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America. vol. 1. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, lii + 452 pp.
  • Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Chris R. Feldman 2013. Are diminutive turtles miniaturized? The ontogeny of plastron shape in emydine turtles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013 - get paper here
  • Bartlett, Richard D. 1989. The bog turtle Clemmys muhlenbergi. Vivarium 2 (3): 25-27
  • Barton, A. J.;John W. Price, Sr. 1955. Our knowledge of the bogturtle, Clemmys muhlenbergi, surveyed and augmented. Copeia 1955 (3): 159-165 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598
  • Byer, N. W., Smith, S. A., & Seigel, R. A. 2018. Microgeographic Variation in Bog Turtle Nesting Ecology. Journal of Herpetology 52 (2): 228–233 - get paper here
  • Byer, Nathan W.; Scott A. Smith and Richard A. Seigel 2017. Effects of Site, Year, and Estimator Choice on Home Ranges of Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in Maryland Journal of Herpetology 51 (1): 68–72 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cooper, J.E. 1968. Additional records for Clemmys muhlenbergii from Maryland. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 4 (4): 83 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ennis 1861. “Mr. Ennis exhibited two of the young of Kalemys Muhlenburgii”. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1861: 124-125 - get paper here
  • Ernst, Carl H. 2001. An overview of the North American turtle genus Clemmys Ritgen, 1828. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4 (1): 211-216
  • Ernst, Carl H. 2011. Glyptemys muhlenbergii (bog turtle) low incidence of algae and leeches. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 420-421 - get paper here
  • Ernst, Carl H.; Lovich, Jeffrey E. 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada, 2nd edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, 827 pp. - get paper here
  • Ernst, Carl H.;Bury, R. Bruce 1977. Clemmys muhlenbergii. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (204): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Farrell, Kelly and Lisa Masi. 2015. Glyptemys muhlenbergii (bog turtle) and Clemmys guttata (spotted turtle) shared nest site. Herpetological Review 46 (1): 80
  • Feaga, Jeffrey B. and Carola A. Haas 2015. Seasonal Thermal Ecology of Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in Southwestern Virginia. Journal of Herpetology Jun 2015, Vol. 49, No. 2: 264-275. - get paper here
  • Feldman, C. R. & Parham, James Ford 2002. Molecular Phylogenetics of Emydine Turtles: Taxonomic Revision and the Evolution of Shell Kinesis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22 (3): 388-398 - get paper here
  • Fontenot, lance W.;Platt, Steven G. 1995. The status of the bog turtle (Clemmys muhlenbergii) in South Carolina. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 30 (7): 145-147 - get paper here
  • Hennen, U. 2001. Categories of the Red List. Radiata 10 (3): 23-28
  • Herman, Dennis W.;Beane, Jeffrey C. 1997. Geographic Distribution. Clemmys muhlenbergii. Herpetological Review 28 (3): 156-157 - get paper here
  • Herman, Dennis W.;Hunter, Elizabeth;McGrath, Chris 1996. Geographic Distribution. Clemmys muhlenbergii. Herpetological Review 27 (4): 210 - get paper here
  • Herman, Dennis W.;Tryon, Bern W.;Boynton, Allen C. 1993. Clemmys muhlenbergii (bog turtle). USA: North Carolina. Herpetological Review 24 (4): 154 - get paper here
  • Holman, J. Alan; Fritz, Uwe 2001. A new emydine species from the Middle Miocene (Barstovian) of Nebraska, USA with a new generic arrangement for the species of Clemmys sensu McDOWELL (1964). Zoologische Abhandlungen<br />(Dresden) 51(2):331-353 - get paper here
  • Hutchinson, Victor H. 1963. Record of the bog turtle, Clemmys muhlenbergi, in southwestern Virginia. Copeia 1963 (1): 156-157 - get paper here
  • Jensen, John B.; Carlos D. Camp, Whit Gibbons, & Matt J. Elliott 2008. Amphibians and reptiles of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, 575 pp.
  • Lambertz, H. & Lambertz, K. 2003. Erfahrungen bei der Haltung und Vermehrung der Moorschildkröte Glyptemys muhlenbergii SCHOEPFF (1801). Draco 4 (13): 32-36 - get paper here
  • Liu, Yu-xiang; Christina M. Davy, Hai-Tao Shi, and Robert W. Murphy 2013. Sex in the Half-Shell: A Review of the Functions and Evolution of Courtship Behavior in Freshwater Turtles. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Jul 2013, Vol. 12, No. 1: 84-100. - get paper here
  • Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Carl H. Ernst, Evelyn M. Ernst, and Julia L. Riley 2014. A 21-Year Study of Seasonal and Interspecific Variation of Hatchling Emergence in a Nearctic Freshwater Turtle Community: To Overwinter or Not To Overwinter? Herpetological Monographs, 28: 93-109
  • Madrigal, T. Cregg 2008. A prehistoric record of Glyptemys muhlenbergii (Bog Turtle) in Central New York. Northeastern Naturalist 15(2):309-312
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2006. Chelonian Illustrations # 24 - North American Wood and Pond Turtles. Reptilia (GB) (44): 83-86 - get paper here
  • McLaughlin, Connor J. and C. Tristan Stayton 2016. Convergent Evolution Provides Evidence of Similar Radiations in Shell Shape in the Turtle Families Emydidae and Geoemydidae Herpetologica Jun 2016, Vol. 72, No. 2: 120-129.
  • Melendez, Nelson A.; Brian Zarate, Jonathan Fingerut, and Scott P. McRobert 2017. Diet of Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) from Northern and Southern New Jersey, USA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 12 (1): - get paper here
  • Mitchell, J. C. & Reay, K.K. 1999. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Virginia. Specialty Publication 1, VA Dept of Game and Fisheries, 122 pp. - get paper here
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  • Nemuras, K. 1966. Some records for Clemmys muhlenbergi in Cecil county, Maryland. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 2 (2): 3 - get paper here
  • Nemuras, Ken 1967. Notes on the natural history of Clemmys muhlenbergi Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 3 (4): 80 - get paper here
  • Obst, F.J. 2003. Sumpfschildkröten. Draco 4 (13): 4-18 - get paper here
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  • Shoemaker, Kevin T. and James P. Gibbs 2013. Genetic Connectivity among Populations of the Threatened Bog Turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) and the Need for a Regional Approach to Turtle Conservation. Copeia Jul 2013, Vol. 2013, No. 2: 324-331. - get paper here
  • Sirois, Angela Marie; James P. Gibbs, Alison L. Whitlock, and Lori A. Erb 2014. Effects of Habitat Alterations on Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii): A Comparison of Two Populations. Journal of Herpetology Dec 2014, Vol. 48, No. 4: 455-460. - get paper here
  • Smith, Lisa M. and Robert P. Cherry 2016. Hibernation Ecology of an Isolated Population of Bog Turtles, Glyptemys muhlenbergii Copeia 104 (2): 475–481 - get paper here
  • Spinks, Phillip Q. & H. Bradley Shaffer 2009. CONFLICTING MITOCHONDRIAL AND NUCLEAR PHYLOGENIES FOR THE WIDELY DISJUNCT EMYS (TESTUDINES: EMYDIDAE) SPECIES COMPLEX, AND WHAT THEY TELL US ABOUT BIOGEOGRAPHY AND HYBRIDIZATION. Systematic Biology 58(1): 1-20 - get paper here
  • Stephens, P.R. & Wiens, J.J. 2009. EVOLUTION OF SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISMS IN EMYDID TURTLES: ECOLOGICAL DIMORPHISM, RENSCH’S RULE, AND SYMPATRIC DIVERGENCE. Evolution 63-4: 910–925 - get paper here
  • Stratmann, Theresa S. M.; Kyle Barrett, and Thomas M. Floyd 2016. Locating Suitable Habitat for a Rare Species: Evaluation of a Species Distribution Model For Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in the Southeastern United States. Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (1) - get paper here
  • Tesauro, Jason and David Ehrenfeld 2007. THE EFFECTS OF LIVESTOCK GRAZING ON THE BOG TURTLE [GLYPTEMYS (= CLEMMYS) MUHLENBERGII]. Herpetologica 63 (3): 293-300 - get paper here
  • Travis, Kristen Bell; Ingrid Haeckel, Gretchen Stevens, Jason Tesauro, and Erik Kiviat 2018. Bog Turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) Dispersal Corridors and Conservation in New York, USA Herp. Cons. Biol. 13 (1): - get paper here
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J.; van Dijk, P.P.; Iverson, J.B. & Shaffer, H.B. [turtle taxonomy working group] 2010. Turtles of the World, 2010 Update: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v3.2010 - get paper here
  • Tutterow, Annalee M.; Gabrielle J. Graeter and Shannon E. Pittman 2017. Bog Turtle Demographics within the Southern Population. Copeia Jun 2017, 105 (2): 293–300
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  • Zappalorti, Robert T.; Annalee M. Tutterow, Shannon E. Pittman, and Jeffrey E. Lovich 2017. Hatching Success and Predation of Bog Turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) Eggs in New Jersey and Pennsylvania Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2017, Vol. 16, No. 2: 194-202.
 
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