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Gonatodes eladioi DO NASCIMENTO, AVILA-PIRES & DA CUNHA, 1987

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Higher TaxaSphaerodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: South American Gecko
Portuguese: Briba, Lagartixa 
SynonymGonatodes eladioi DO NASCIMENTO et al. 1987
Gonatodes eladioi — AVILA-PIRES 1995: 264
Gonatodes eladioi — RÖSLER 2000: 84 
DistributionBrazil (Para)

Type locality: Serra de Carajas in Pará State, Brazil  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MPEG 14385 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Gonatodes with proximal subdigital lamellae as wide as digit, i n total 14-16 under fourth toe. Two lateral rows of scales (on each side) on distal part of digits. Tail ventrally with a repetitive sequence of one single midventral scale in contact at each side (latero-distally) with one scale, followed by a slightly larger, single midventral in contact at each side with two scales. Scales around midbody 84-97. Ventrals 43-48. Male with pale vertebral stripe from snout to base of tail; dorsal pattern in life in different tones of brown and grey, vertebral stripe smoke-grey (Avila-Pires 1995: 265).

Description. Sphaerodactyline gecko with maximum SVL of 34 mm (MPEG 14385, male; MPEG 14386, female). Head 0.23-0.29 (n= 15) times SVL, proportionally longer in smaller specimens; 1.4-1.7 (1.55 ± 0.07, n= 14) times as long as wide; 1.3-1.7 (1.48 ± 0.14, n= 14) times as wide as high. Snout round, moderately elongate, gently sloping toward top of head. Neck slightly narrower than head and body. Body cylindrical. Limbs well developed, forelimbs 0.30-0.36 (0.33 ± 0.02, n= 15) times SVL, hind limbs 0.39-0.47 (0.44 ± 0.02, n= 15)times. Tail round in cross section, tapering toward tip, 0.9-1.2 (1.13 ± 0.04, n= 6) times SVL.
Tongue relatively wide, slightly narrowing anteriorly, with a round tip; covered anteriorly by imbricate, scale-like papillae, posteriorly villose; tip with a short median cleft. Teeth small, conical, subequal.
Rostral large, nearly pentagonal, distinctly visible from above, with a median cleft extending from*posterior margin, in a depressed area. Three or four postrostrals, lateral ones (supranasals) much larger than median ones, median ones about as large as adjacent scales on snout. Nostril bordered by rostral, first supralabial, three post-nasals and lateral postrostral (supranasal); postnasals as large as, or slightly larger than, adjacent loreals. Scales on snout and on loreal region round to polygonal, slightly convex, juxtaposed to subimbricate. Loreal scales 8-9 in a line between post-nasals and anterior margin of orbit. From between eyes toward posterior part of head the scales decrease in size and become granular. Scales on supraorbital region similar to and contiguous with those on top of head. Supraciliary flap with a smooth margin or with up to six slightly enlarged, prominent scales on anterior upper margin. Pupil round. Scales on temporal region small, granular, like those on posterior upper part of head. Ear-opening much smaller than eye, round to vertically or obliquely oval. Supralabials 5-8, mostly 6, decreasing in size, 5-6 to below centre of eye.
Mental large, roughly rhomboid, bordered posteriorly b y two relatively large postmentals. Scales on chin anteriorly polygonal, gradually decreasing in size from postmentals, posteriorly round, relatively small; all juxtaposed. Infralabials 4-6, decreasing in size posteriorly; 3-4 to below centre of eye.
Scales on nape and on sides of neck granular, continuous with those on head and body. Scales on throat smooth, imbricate, with round posterior margin, with a short transitional zone with the granular scales on chin.
Dorsals granular, slightly larger than scales on top of head. Scales on flanks like the dorsals, latero-ventrally gradually changing into the ventrals. Ventral region with scales distinctly larger than the dorsals, smooth, hexagonal, imbricate, in longitudinal and oblique rows; 43-48 (45.9 ± 1.3, n= 14) along the midventral line between anterior margin of forelimbs and vent. Scales around midbody 84-97 (91.2 ± 3.9, n= 13). Scales on preanal plate similar to ventrals, except for border of vent, which has very small scales. Males with a relatively large escutcheon area on belly, and on two to three rows of scales on ventral surface of thighs.
Scales on tail dorsally smooth, roundish, imbricate, laterally increasing in size toward ventral surface. A mid-ventral row of transversely enlarged scales, with sequence l ' l " (figs. 2,86).
Scales on antero-dorsal surface of forelimbs, on anterior and ventral surfaces of thighs, and on ventral surface of lower legs smooth, roundish, imbricate; on forelimbs similar in size to scales on dorsal part of tail, on hind limbs increasing in size toward ventral surface; on other surfaces of both foreand hind limbs, scales granular. Lamellae under third finger 12-13 (12.3 ± 0.5, n= 30,15 specimens), under fourth finger 12-14 (12.7 ± 0.7, n= 30,15 specimens), in both cases with 3-4 slightly enlarged basal ones; under fourth toe 14-16 (15.3 ± 0.6, n= 29,15 specimens), with 5-7 slightly enlarged basal ones. Fingers and toes, distally, with two lateral rows of scales on each side. Claws exposed, non retractile, between two basal scales.
Sexual dichromatism evident. Colour in life of holotype (Nascimento et al., 1987) as follows: general colour greyish-brown, darker (vandyke-brown, 121) on head and neck; a smoke-grey (44) vertebral band, 4-15 granules wide, from rostral to base of tail, with wavering, vandyke-brown (121) margins; two longitudinal, bluish-grey (near 88, Pratt's Payne's Gray) stripes, three granules wide, from posterior corner of eye to level of forelimbs; ventrally, head orange-yellow (18), with vandyke-brown (121) stripes, body sulphur-yellow(157); tail pale-pinkish-buff (121D), with four regularly spaced, vandyke-brown spots, dorsally; salmon colour (106) ventrally. Some notes on colour in life of females MPEG 14386-387 were made by M.G.M. Nery (field notes): head vandyke-brown (121), with two Pratt's Payne's Grey (88) lateral stripes, running from snout, through eye, till forelimbs; a vertebral, smoke-grey (44) band, from neck onto base of tail, with vandyke-brown (121) paired spots along it; vertebral band much less evident than in male; tail pale-pinkish-buff (121D) dorsally, salmon colour (106) ventrally (Avila-Pires 1995: 265).

Coloration in preservative: males with dark brown and dirty-white banded head, the dirty-white bands corresponding to a continuation of the vertebral band and two lateral stripes which run from posterior corner of eye to level of forearm; labials vertically banded. Body light greyish-brown, with a vertebral dirty-white band, bordered by a dark-brown band at each side; at regular intervals, at the border between the dirty-white and the dark-brown bands, a pair of blackish, subtriangular spots, giving the vertebral band a wavering appearance. A pair of such spots at base of tail delimits the end of the vertebral stripe; posteriorly, tail light greyish-brown, dark peppered, with a few, fused spots with large intervals in between. Ventral region dirty-white, head with a series of dark brown stripes (Avila-Pires 1995: 265).

Coloration in females and juveniles: rather similar pattern, except for the absence of a dark brown band delimiting the vertebral band, so that the latter is almost indistinct, while a paired series of dark brown spots becomes more apparent. On base of tail there is one pair of such spots; posteriorly, the pairs of spots fuse with each other and, near the end of the tail, form rings around it, which are followed by contrasting white rings. Ventral region similar to that described for the male, except for the ringed tip of the tail (Avila-Pires 1995: 265). 
CommentSympatry: Gonatodes eladioi is sympatric with G. humeralis.

Distribution: Reports from Galapagos, Cocos Island, Caribbean Islands, are in error (M. Hoogmoed, pers. comm.)

Behavior: mainly diurnal 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Eladio Da Cruz Lima (1900-1943) a Justice at the Supreme Court, State of Pará, Brazil. He was also a zoologist associated with Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belém, Brazil.  
References
  • Avila-Pires, T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Gamble, Tony; Andrew M. Simons, Guarino R. Colli and Laurie J. Vitt 2008. Tertiary climate change and the diversification of the Amazonian gecko genus Gonatodes (Sphaerodactylidae, Squamata). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46 (1): 269-277 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Nascimento F Paiva do; de Avila-Pires T C Sauer; da Cunha O Rodrigues 1987. Os repteis da area de Carajas, Para, Brasil (Squamata). 2. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi NOVA SERIE ZOOLOGIA 3(1) 1987: 33-65
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. 2015. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. II. Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae, Sphaerodactylidae. Zootaxa 3981 (1): 001–055 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Vaz-Silva, W.; RM Oliveira, AFN Gonzaga, KC Pinto, FC Poli, TM Bilce, M Penhacek, L Wronski, JX Martins, TG Junqueira, LCC, Cesca VY, Guimarães RD. Pinheiro 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil Braz. J. Biol., 75 (3) (suppl.): S205-S218 - get paper here
 
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