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Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (NAMIYE, 1912)

IUCN Red List - Goniurosaurus kuroiwae - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaEublepharidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
SubspeciesGoniurosaurus kuroiwae kuroiwae NAMIYE 1912
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae sengokui HONDA & OTA 2017 
Common NamesE: Kuroiwa's eyelid gecko, Kuroiwa’s Leopard Gecko, Tokashiki Gecko
G: Okinawa-Krallengecko 
SynonymGymnodactylus albofasciatus kuroiwae NAMIYE 1912
Eublepharis orientalis — OKADA 1936
Gymnodactylus albofasciatus kuroiwae - OKADA 1958: 104
Eublepharis kuroiwae — WERMUTH 1965: 28
Eublepharis kuroiwae kuroiwae - NAKAMURA & UÉNO 1963
Amamisaurus kuroiwae — BÖRNER 1981
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae — GRISMER 1987: 44
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae — SEUFER et al. 2005

Goniurosaurus kuroiwae sengokui HONDA & OTA 2017
Eublepharis kuroiwae orientalis — NAKAMURA & UÉNO 1963 (part)
Eublepharis kuroiwae orientalis — SENGOKU 1979 (part)
Amamisaurus orientalis orientalis — BÖRNER 1981 (part)
Eublepharis kuroiwae orientalis — TOYAMA et al., 1984 (part)
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae — GRISMER 1987 (part)
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae kuroiwae — GRISMER 1988 (part)
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae orientalis — OTA 1989 (part)
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae orientalis — TOYAMA & OTA 1991 (part).
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae orientalis — GRISMER et al., 1994 (part).
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae orientalis — TANAKA 1996 (part)
Goniurosaurus orientalis — GRISMER 2002 (part)
Goniurosaurus orientalis — DICKHOFF 2004 (part)
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae orientalis — WERNER et al., 2004 (part)
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae orientalis — TANAKA 2005 (part)
Goniurosaurus orientalis — SEUFER et al., 2005 (part)
Goniurosaurus orientalis — ZIEGLER et al., 2008 (part)
Goniurosaurus kuroiwae orientalis — OTA 2010 (part) 
DistributionJapan (Okinawajima, Sesokojima, and Kourijima)

Type locality: Ryukyu Islands
Type locality: Mt. Taniyo-dake, Haneji, Kunigami-gun, Okinawajima (fide OTA 1989).

sengokui: Tokashikijima, Okinawa Island Group, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan; Type locality: “Tokashiki (ca. 26.2° N, 127.4° E), Tokashikijima, Okinawa Island Group, Central Ryukyus, Japan”  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: NSMT H022525
Holotype: NSMT-H 10808 (formerly Satoshi Tanaka’s Private Collection [TPN] 78080509 listed in Grismer et al. [1994]), an adult male, collected in 5th August 1978, collected by Satoshi Tanaka. Paratypes: 37 paratypes as listed in HONDA & OTA 2017 [sengokui] 
CommentSynonymy: Gymnodactylus yamashinae OKADA 1936 has been synonymized with G. k. orientalis by NAKAMURA & UANO (1963) and OTA 1989. Both forms have been confused often. Synonymy of sengokui from HONDA & OTA 2017.

Subspecies: Many recent authors consider all previous subspecies of Goniurosaurus kuroiwae as valid species. Honda et al. (2014) found substantial genetic divergence between G. k. splendens from the Amami Island Group and the remaining subspecies all from the Okinawa Island Group; and at least six independent lineages within the latter, indicating non-monophyly for two of the subspecies, G. k. kuroiwae and G. k. orientalis.

Diagnosis (sengokui): Goniurosaurus k. sengokui subsp. nov. is distinguishable from all other Ryukyu taxa of the genus as follows. It differs from G. k. yamashinae in showing lineate tendency of middorsal patterns at least in the anterior body, darker, more or less reddish iris and dorsal pattern; from G. splendens also in showing lineate tendency of middorsal patterns at least in the anterior body, as well as mottlings in interspaces between successive transverse body bands, and by lacking sharply keeled tubercles, juxtaposed ventrals and the posteriormost body band extending onto hindlimbs; from G. k. toyamai also in showing lineate tendency of middorsal patterns at least in the anterior body, as well as mottlings in interspaces between successive transverse body bands, and by lacking robust body; from G. k. kuroiwae in having dorsal bands; and from G. k. orientalis in showing more or less reddish or pinkish tint in live coloration of dorsal body pattern and iris (Figure 2 D–F).

Conservation: A new extinct subspecies from Yoronjima Island (Ryukyu Archipelago) was recently described as Goniurosaurus kuroiwae yunnu Nakamura, Takahashi and Ota 2014. 
EtymologyThe subspecific epithet, “sengokui”, noun in genitive case, derives from the last name of late Mr. Showichi Sengoku, honoring his great contribution to the enhancement of social awareness and appreciation of wildlife including reptiles in Japan. 
References
  • Ackermann, L. 2016. In den Wäldern von Okinawa. Terraria-Elaphe 2016 (5): 48-51 - get paper here
  • Börner, ACHIM RÜDIGER 1981. The genera of Asian eublepharine geckos and a hypothesis on their phylogeny. Miscellaneous Articles in Saurology 9: (1), 1-14 [privately printed], Cologne
  • Gericke, F. 1981. Lidgeckos der Gattung Eublepharis. Sauria 3 (4): 11-14 - get paper here
  • Goris, R.C. & Maeda, N. 2004. Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger, Malabar, 285 pp.
  • Grismer L L. Ota H. Tanaka S. 1994. Phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata: Eublepharidae) from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, with description of a new subspecies. Zoological Science (TOKYO) 11 (2): 319-335 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee 1987. Evidence for the resurrection of Goniurosaurus Barbour (Reptilia: Eublepharidae) with a discussion on geographic variation in Goniurosaurus lichtenfelderi. Acta Herpetologica Sinica 6 (1): 43-47 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee 2002. Goniurosaurus: Ancient Gekkos of the Far East. Gekko 3 (1): 22-28
  • Grismer,L.L. 1997. Eublepharid Geckos - Living Relics of Gekkotan Evolution. Fauna 1 (1): 26-33
  • HONDA, Masanao and Hidetoshi OTA 2017. On the Live Coloration and Partial Mitochondrial DNA Sequences in the Topotypic Population of Goniurosaurus kuroiwae orientalis (Squamata: Eublepharidae), with Description of a New Subspecies from Tokashikijima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan Asian Herpetological Research 8 (2): 96–107; DOI: 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.170003 - get paper here
  • Honda, Masanao; Takaki Kurita, Mamoru Toda, and Hidetoshi Ota 2014. Phylogenetic Relationships, Genetic Divergence, Historical Biogeography and Conservation of an Endangered Gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata: Eublepharidae), from the Central Ryukyus, Japan. Zoological Science 31 (5): 309-320. - get paper here
  • Kaverkin, Y. 2000. Eublepharoide Geckos der Gattung Goniurosaurus BARBOUR, 1908 - Haltung und Zucht im Terrarium. Sauria 22 (4): 17-22 - get paper here
  • Kaverkin, Yuri 1999. Tokage Modoki, Those Wonderful Geckos of the Ryuku Archipelago. Gekko 1 (1): 42-46
  • Kurita, Takaki, Remi Kawamura and Mamoru Toda. 2013. Limestone cave as a cradle of the Ryukyu ground gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae. Herpetological Review 44 (4): 569-572
  • Kurita, Takaki; Hiroaki Aoyama, Seikoh Saitoh, Naoya Shinzato, Masanao Honda, Mamoru Toda 2014. Development and characterization of 24 microsatellite markers in a eublepharid gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae. Conservation Genetics Resources 6 (1): 247-249 - get paper here
  • Maki, M. 1931. A new banded gecko, Eublepharis orientalis, Sp. Nov. from Riu Kyu. Annotaiones Zoologicae Japonenses, 13:9—11
  • Nakamura, K., and S. I. Uéno. 1959. The geckos found in the limestone caves of the Ryu-Kyu Islands. Memoirs of the College of Science, University of Kyoto, 26:45-52
  • Nakamura, Yasuyuki, Akio Takahashi and Hidetoshi OTA. 2013. Recent cryptic extinction of squamate reptiles on Yoronjima Island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, inferred from garbage dump remains. Acta Herpetologica 8 (1): 19-34
  • Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Akio Takahashi, Hidetoshi Ota 2014. A new, recently extinct subspecies of the Kuroiwa’s Leopard Gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata: Eublepharidae), from Yoronjima Island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. . Acta Herpetologica 9 (1): 61-73 - get paper here
  • Namiye, M. 1912. The geckos from the Okinawa Islands [in Japanese]. Dobutugaku Zasshi (Zoological Magazine), Tokyo, 24:442-445.
  • Okada 1958. Cat. Vertebr. Japan: 104
  • Okada, Y. 1936. A new cave-gecko, Gymnodactylus yamashinae from Kumejima, Okinawa group. Proceedings of the Imperial Academy [of Japan], 12:53-54.
  • Ota, H. 2000. Current status of the threatened amphibians and reptiles of Japan. Popul. Ecol. 42: 5-9
  • Ota, H.; Matsui, M.; Hikida, T.; Tanaka, S. 1987. Karyotype of a gekkonid lizard, Eublepharis kuroiwae kuroiwae. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 43(8):924-925
  • Ota, Hidetoshi 1989. A review of the geckos (Lacertilia: Reptilia) of the Ryukyu Archipelago and Taiwan. in: Matsui et al., eds; Current Herpetology in East Asia: Proceedings of the Second Japan-China Herpetological Symposium Kyoto, July 1988: 222-261
  • Ota, Hidetoshi; Honda, Masanoa; Kobayashi,Mari; Sengoku,Showichi & Hikida,Tsutomu 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of eublepharid geckos (Reptilia: Squamata): a molecular approach. Zoological Science 16 (4): 659-666 - get paper here
  • Rösler, Herbert 1995. Geckos der Welt - Alle Gattungen. Urania, Leipzig, 256 pp.
  • Seufer, H.; Y. Kaverkin & A. Kirschner (eds.) 2005. Die Lidgeckos. Kirschner und Seufer Verlag, 238 pp.
  • Wang, Ying-Yong; Jian-Huan Yang, and L. Lee Grismer 2013. A New Species of Goniurosaurus (Squamata: Eublepharidae) from Libo, Guizhou Province, China. Herpetologica 69 (2): 214-226. - get paper here
  • Wang, Ying-Yong; Jian-Huan Yang, and Rong-Feng Cui 2010. A NEW SPECIES OF GONIUROSAURUS (SQUAMATA: EUBLEPHARIDAE) FROM YINGDE, GUANGDONG PROVINCE, CHINA. Herpetologica 66 (2): 229 - get paper here
  • Wang, Ying-Yong; Meng-Jie Jin, Yu-Long Li, and L. Lee Grismer 2014. Description of a New Species of Goniurosaurus (Squamata: Eublepharidae) from the Guangdong Province, China, Based on Molecular and Morphological Data. Herpetologica Sep 2014, Vol. 70, No. 3: 309-322. - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T.; Truong, N.Q.; Schmitz, A.; Stenke, R. & Rösler, H. 2008. A new species of Goniurosaurus from Cat Ba Island, Hai Phong, northern Vietnam (Squamata: Eublepharidae). Zootaxa 1771: 16–30 - get paper here
 
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