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Gonocephalus grandis (GRAY, 1845)

IUCN Red List - Gonocephalus grandis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Giant Forest Dragon, Great Anglehead Lizard
G: Grosse Winkelkopfagame 
SynonymDilophyrus grandis GRAY 1845: 239
Dilophyrus grandis — THEOBALD 1868: 33
Dilophyrus grandis — FISCHER 1885: 3
Dilophyrus grandis — MÜLLER 1880
Gonyocephalus grandis — BOULENGER 1885: 298
Gonyocephalus grandis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 109
Gonocephalus grandis — SMITH 1930: 24
Gonycephalus [sic] grandis —SWORDER 1933
Goniocephalus grandis — TAYLOR 1963: 879
Goniocephalus grandis — HENDRICKSON 1966: 61
Gonocephalus grandis — KAHL et al. 1980: 161
Gonocephalus grandis — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 183
Gonocephalus grandis — COX et al. 1998: 94
Gonocephalus grandis — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 61
Gonocephalus grandis — MALKMUS et al. 2002: 244
Gonocephalus grandis — TEYNIÉ et al. 2010
Gonocephalus grandis — GRISMER & QUAH 2019 
DistributionS Thailand, Vietnam, West Malaysia, Pulau Tioman, Pulau Pinang, Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo, Nias, Mentawei I, Nako, Sipora)

Type locality: Rangoon (= Yangon, Myanmar)  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH (NHMUK) 1946.8.14.83, male; 1946.9.4.26, male 
DiagnosisSnout longer than the diameter of the orbit; canthus rostralis sharp; supraciliary border normally raised; tympanum distinct, about as large as the eye-opening. Head-scales small, unequal, keeled, the largest on the canthus rostralis and the supraorbital borders; one or two enlarged tubercles above the ear-opening; ten to thirteen upper and lower labials. A moderate gular sac, no serrated edge, covered with small smooth scales. Body compressed; nuchal and dorsal crests separated by a deep notch, the height of the former is about the length of the snout, latter a little lower; it is formed of long narrow scales, united together except at the tips, with three rows of smaller smooth scales at the base. In females the crests are much lower, so that the dorsal one is only a serrated ridge. Dorsal scales very small, equal; ventral scales larger, smooth. Tail compressed with a serrated edge above and covered with smooth scales except the two inferior series, which are enlarged and keeled; its length two times and a half that of head and body or more. Limbs long, slender, covered with equal smooth (or faintly keeled) scales; the hind limb reaches beyond the eye; third and fourth fingers equal (de Rooij 1915: 109).

Coloration: Brown or olive above, uniform or with dark transverse bands; flanks with pale brown or yellowish round spots. Females and young ones have a dark band behind the eye, through the ear, edged with light and meeting its fellow. Lower parts brownish or yellowish; throat sometimes with dark lines (de Rooij 1915: 109).

Size: Length of head and body 155 mm.; tail 405 mm (de Rooij 1915: 109). 
CommentCan change color from brilliant green to almost black in minutes. 
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