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Gyalopion quadrangulare (GÜNTHER, 1893)

IUCN Red List - Gyalopion quadrangulare - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Thornscrub or Desert Hooknose Snake
S: Naricilla del Desierto 
SynonymFicimia quadrangularis GÜNTHER 1893: 99
Ficimia desertorum TAYLOR 1936: 51
Ficimia desertorum TAYLOR 1938: 494
Gyalopion desertorum — SMITH & TAYLOR 1941: 359
Gyalopion desertorum — ZWEIFEL & NORRIS 1955: 243
Gyalopion quadrangularis desertorum — DIXON & FUGLER 1959: 164
Ficimia quadrangularis desertorum — FUNK 1964
Gyalopion quadrangularis — STEBBINS 1985: 216
Gyalopion quadrangulare — LINER 1994
Ficimia quadrangularis — SHINE 1994
Gyalopion quadrangulare — CROTHER 2000
Gyalopion quadrangulare — CROTHER et al. 2012
Gyalopion quadrangulare — WALLACH et al. 2014: 317 
DistributionUSA (S Arizona),
Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Chihuahua)

Type locality: "Presidio, near Mazatlan, Sinaloa."

desertorum: Mexico (Sonora); Type locality: "about 12 kilometers northwest of Guaymas, Sonora."  
Reproductionoviparous (Greer 1966) 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.1.75, female
Holotype: INHS (= UIMNH) [Ficimia desertorum] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Rostral separated from frontal by prefrontals; no loreal; anal divided; no spots on sides of body, only markings a series of 26 rounded or subquadrangular, uniform blackish-brown spots on body, 5 on tail; spots not extending below fifth scale row, sides of body below this nearly white; nuchal spot confluent with interocular dark bar (Smith 1941: 359). 
CommentSynonymy: after HARDY 1976. Gyalopion quadrangulare desertorum is not recognized by COLLINS 1997 either. 
EtymologyThe epithet quadrangularis is derived from Latin (quadr-, four; angul-, an angle, corner) in allusion to the shape of the dark dorsal blotches. 
  • Babb, Randall D. and David D. Kandiyeli. 2015. Gyalopion quadrangulare (Thornscrub hook-nosed snake) defensive behavior / cloacal popping. Herpetological Review 46 (2): 273 - get paper here
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Collins J T 1997. Standard Common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles, 4th edition. Herpetological Circular 25: 1-40
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • Fugler, Charles M.;Dixon, James R. 1961. Notes on the herpetofauna of the El Dorado Area of Sinaloa, Mexico. Publications of the Museum, Michigan State University, Biological Series 2 (1): 1-24
  • Funk, Richard S. 1964. Fifth Ficimia quadrangularis desertorum Taylor in United States. Southwestern Naturalist 9 (2): 102-109 - get paper here
  • Greer, A. E. 1965. A note on Gyalopion quadrangularis in Nayarit, Mexico with remarks on the clinal variation within the species. Herpetologica 21 (1): 68-69 - get paper here
  • Greer, A. E. 1966. Viviparity and oviparity in the snake genera Conopsis, Toluca, Gyalopion, and Ficimia, with comments on Tomodon and Helicops. Copeia 1966 (2): 371-373 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Hardy, L.M., & McDiarmid, R.W. 1969. The amphibians and reptiles of Sinaloa, Mexico. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 18 (3): 39-252. - get paper here
  • Hardy, Laurence M. 1976. Gyalopion, G. canum, G. quadrangularis. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (182): 1-3 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2020. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sinaloa, Mexico with a conservation status summary and comparisons with neighboring states. ZooKeys 931: 85-114 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Rorabaugh JC 2019. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sonora, Mexico, with updated species lists. ZooKeys 829: 131-160 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. (ed.) 2015. Amphibians and Reptiles of the US - Mexico Border States / Anfibios y Reptiles de los Estados de la Frontera México - Estados Unidos. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas. x + 614 pp.; ISBN 978-1-62349-306-6. - get paper here
  • Loc-Barragán JA, Smith GR, Woolrich-Piña GA, Lemos-Espinal JA 2024. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nayarit, Mexico with conservation status and comparison with adjoining States. Herpetozoa 37: 25-42 - get paper here
  • Love, B. 2014. Neue Horizonte. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (108): 14-15
  • Nevárez-de los Reyes; Manuel, David Lazcano, Javier Banda-Leal and Ian Recchio 2014. Notes on Mexican Herpetofauna 22: Herpetofauna of the Continental Portion of the Municipality of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 49(8):105-115 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Phillips, C.A. 2003. HERPETOLOGICAL TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY: AN UPDATE TO THE PRIMARY TYPES. [type catalogue] University of Illinois Museum of Natural History, 17 pp.
  • Shine, Richard 1994. Sexual size dimorphism in snakes revisited. Copeia 1994 (2): 326-346 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.; Taylor, Edward H. 1941. A review of the snakes of the genus Ficimia. J. Washington Acad. Sci. 31 (8): 356-368 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Tanikawa, L., S. Kunta, M. Lee, S. Sirivella, D. Grubb, and J.C. Rorabaugh. 2016. Predation of a Thornscrub Hook-nosed Snake (Gyalopion quadrangulare) by a Forrer’s Leopard Frog (Lithobates forreri). Sonoran Herpetologist 29 (2):24-25. - get paper here
  • Tanikawa, Lucas; Srijan Kunta, Mimi Lee, Sudeep Sirivella, Dan Grubb, and James C. Rorabaugh 2016. Predation of a Thornscrub Hook-nosed Snake (Gyalopion quadrangulare) by a Forrer’s Leopard Frog (Lithobates forreri). Sonoran Herpetologist 29 (2): 24-25 - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward Harrison 1936. Description of a new Sonoran snake of the genus Ficimia, with notes on other Mexican species. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 49: 51-54 - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward Harrison 1938. Notes on the herpetological fauna of the Mexican state of Sonora. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 24 (19): 475-503 [1936] - get paper here
  • Trescott, Eugene, Jr 1994. Gyalopion quadranggulare (desert hooknose snake). USA: Arizona. Herpetological Review 25 (2): 77 - get paper here
  • Turner, D. S., Van Devender, T. R., Hale, S. F., Zach, R., Martínez, R., Van Devender, R. W., ... & Paholski, C. 2022. Amphibians and reptiles of Rancho Las Playitas area, Sonora, Mexico. Sonoran Herpetologist, 35, 50-59 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
  • Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A, Paulino Ponce-Campos, Jesús Loc-Barragán, Juan Pablo Ramírez-Silva, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson, Elí García-Padilla and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Nayarit, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 376-448 - get paper here
  • Zweifel,R.G. and Norris,K.S. 1955. Contributions to the herpetology of Sonora, Mexico:Descriptions of new subspecies of snakes (Micruroides euryxanthus and Lampropeltis getulus) and miscellaneous collecting notes. American Midland Naturalist 54: 230-249 - get paper here
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