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Gymnodactylus amarali BARBOUR, 1925

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Higher TaxaPhyllodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymGymnodactylus amarali BARBOUR 1925: 101
Gymnodactylus geckoides amarali — VANZOLINI 1953: 251
Gymnodactylus geckoides amarali — WERMUTH 1965: 53
Gymnodactylus geckoides amarali — RÖSLER 2000: 85
Gymnodactylus geckoides amarali — BERTOLOTTO et al. 2004
Gymnodactylus amarali — VANZOLINI 2005
Gymnodactylus carvalhoi VANZOLINI 2005
Gymnodactylus amarali — CASSIMIRO & RODRIGUES 2009 
DistributionBrazil (south of Rio Parnahyba to Rio das Mortes, south to SE Goyaz, east through S Bahia); Type locality: Engenheiro Dodt, Santa Philomena, Upper Rio Parnahyba, Brazil.

carvalhoi: Brazil (Cerrado of C Brazil; Tocantins); Type locality: Ipueiras, Tocantins.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MCZ 20682
Holotype [carvalhoi]: MZUSP 91187, Ipueiras, Tocantins, 26-29.v.2002, ex MVA Planejamento e Consultoria Ambiental. 
CommentDIAGNOSIS (carvalhoi): Color pattern plain or, more frequently, with moderately
marked ocelli. Meristic characters: Dorsal tubercles in 13 – 16 irregular rows (mode 14, 72%); 31 – 49 tubercles in a paramedian row; 17 – 24 transverse
rows of ventral scales; 13 – 21 infradigital lamellae on the fourth toe.

amarali: Rows of dorsal tubercles 12-16; tubercles in a paramedian row, 33-43; ventrals 19-24; lamellae, 13-19; dorsum and flanks with irregular rows of black, white-centered ocelli; distribution, Central Brasil (present states of Goiás, Tocantins and Mato Grosso) to Piauí [from VANZOLINI 2004]. Known from only 2 specimens fide CASSIMIRO & RODRIGUES 2009.

Vanzolini (2005) included under G. carvalhoi all specimens of Gymnodactylus from the Central Brazilian Cerrado currently attributed to Gymnodactylus geckoides amarali. Although Vanzolini did not examine the holotype of Barbour (1925), he redefined and redescribed G. amarali based on a single juvenile specimen he collected at Alto Parnaíba, state of Maranhão, in the surroundings of the type locality. Recognizing this specimen as the only other example of G. amarali he decided to allocate all other specimens from the Cerrado previously assigned to G. geckoides amarali, in his new species. CASSIMIRO & RODRIGUES 2009 think that Vanzolini was in error and synonymized G. carvalhoi with G. amarali. 
EtymologyEtymology (carvalhoi): Named after Celso Morato de Carvalho (Universidade Federal de Sergipe), old friend, colleague and field companion, who collected our specimen of Gymnodactylus amarali. 
References
  • Amorim, Mariana Eloy de; Thomas W. Schoener, Guilherme Ramalho Chagas Cataldi Santoro, Anna Carolina Ramalho Lins, Jonah Piovia-Scott, and Reuber Albuquerque Brandão 2017. Lizards on newly created islands independently and rapidly adapt in morphology and diet. PNAS 2017 ; published ahead of print July 31, 2017, doi:10.1073/pnas.1709080114 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1925. New Neotropical lizards. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 38: 101-102 - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M. 2013. Geckos - The Animal Answer Guide. Johns Hopkins University Press, 159 pp.
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA
  • Bertolotto, C.E.V.; K.C.M. Pellegrino and Y. Yonenaga-Yassuda 2004. Occurrence of B chromosomes in lizards: a review. Cytogenet Genome Res 106: 243–246
  • CASSIMIRO, JOSÉ & MIGUEL T. RODRIGUES. 2009. A new species of lizard genus Gymnodactylus Spix, 1825 (Squamata: Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) from Serra do Sincorá, northeastern Brazil, and the status of G. carvalhoi Vanzolini, 2005. Zootaxa 2008: 38-52 - get paper here
  • Pellegrino, K.C.M. et al. 2009. Chromosomal Evolution in the Brazilian Geckos of the Genus Gymnodactylus (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) from the Biomes of Cerrado, Caatinga and Atlantic Rain Forest: Evidence of Robertsonian Fusion Events and Supernumerary Chromosomes. Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 191-203
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. 2015. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. II. Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae, Sphaerodactylidae. Zootaxa 3981 (1): 001–055
  • Shepard, D.B. 2007. Habitat but not body shape affects predator attack frequency on lizard models in the Brazilian Cerrado. Herpetologica 63 (2): 193-202 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P. E. 1953. "Sobre a diferenciação geografica de Gymnodactylus geckoides (Sauria, Gekkonidae)" and "Sobre a Presença do genero Lepidoblepharis no Brasil (Sauria, Gekkonidae)". Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 11 (14/15): 225-270
  • Vanzolini, P.E. 2005. On Gymnodactylus amarali Barbour, 1925, with the description of a new species (Sauria, Gekkonidae). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 77(4): 595-611 - get paper here
 
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