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Gymnophthalmus speciosus (HALLOWELL, 1861)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesGymnophthalmus speciosus speciosus (HALLOWELL 1861)
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti (COPE 1876) 
Common NamesGolden Spectacled Tegu 
SynonymBlepharictisis speciosa HALLOWELL 1861: 484
Tretioscincus laevicaudus COPE 1869 (fide PETERS et al. 1970: 138)
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — STUART 1939: 4
Gymnophthalmus speciosus speciosus — MERTENS 1952: 56
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — PETERS et al. 1970: 138
Gymnophthalmus speciosus - HARDY et al. 1989: 215
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — LINER 1994

Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus birdi STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi — MERTENS 1952: 56
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi — PETERS et al. 1970: 138
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi — McCOY 1990

Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti COPE 1876
Epaphelus sumichrasti COPE 1876: 115
Epaphelus sumichrasti — COPE 1879: 270
Gymnophthalmus sumichrasti — GÜNTHER 1885: 29
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti — STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti — PETERS et al. 1970: 138 
DistributionS Mexico (Oaxaca), W Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela (Carabobo, Zulia etc.),
Colombia (North Coast of Colombia; Magdalena and Cauca Valley Rivers), Margarita I, Chacachacare Island

Type locality: Nicaragua

birdi: Guatemala; Type locality: Guatemala, Baja Verapaz, Salamá Basin, 2 km S San Gerónimo. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntype: MCZ R-5788
Holotype: UMMZ [birdi] 
CommentChacachacare Island is off Trinidad. This species apparently has not been found on Trinidad itself. Bisexual species (in contrast to G. underwoodi). 
References
  • Alvarez DEL TORO, M. 1982. Los Reptiles de Chiapas. 3rd ed. México: Tuxtla Gutiérrez, 248 pp.
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Castro-Herrera, F. & Vargas-Salinas, F. 2008. Anfibios y reptiles en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9 (2): 251 - 277 - get paper here
  • Cole C J. DESSAUER H C. TOWNSEND C R. ARNOLD M G. 1990. Unisexual lizards of the genus Gymnophthalmus (Reptilia Teiidae) in the neotropics: genetics origin and systematics. American Museum Novitates (2994): 1-29. - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.;Townsend, Carol R.;Dessauer, Herbert C.;Hardy, Laurence M. 1989. A lizard foretold. Natural History 1989 (5): 12-17
  • Cope, E.D. 1876. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 93-183 [1875] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1879. Eleventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 261-277.
  • Cope, Edward D. 1869. Catalogue of Batrachia and Reptilia obtained by J. A. McNiel in Nicaragua. First Annual report of the Trustees of the Peabody Academy of Science 1869: 80-82
  • Esqueda, Luis Felipe, Enrique La Marca, Marco Natera and Pietro Battiston 2001. Noteworthy reptilian state records and a lizard species new to the herpetofauna of Venezuela. Herpetological Review 32 (3):198-200 - get paper here
  • García-Roa, Roberto and Javier Sunyer. 2012. New distribution records of Gymnophthalmus speciosus (Hallowell, 1861) (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) in Nicaragua. Herpetology Notes 6: 539-542 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Hallowell, E. 1861. Report upon the Reptilia of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under command of Capt. John Rogers, U. S. N. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12 [1860]: 480 - 510 - get paper here
  • HERNANDEZ-RUZ, EMIL JOSÉ. 2006. GYMNOPHTHALMUS SPECIOSUS (HALLOWELL 1861) (SQUAMATA, GYMNOPHTHALMIDAE) EN COLOMBIA. Caldasia 28 (1): 79-88 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Lee, J. C. 2000. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the Maya world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
  • Lee, J.C. 1996. The amphibians and reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula. Comstock, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 500 pp.
  • Leenders, T. 2004. Der Nationalpark “El Imposible” in El Salvador. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (48): 45-49 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2(1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCoy, C. J. 1990. Additions to the herpetofauna of Belize, Central America. Carib. J. Sci. 26 (3-4): 164-166
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • Medina-RanGel, Guido Fabián 2013. CAMBIO EstACIOnAl En El UsO DE lOs RECURsOs DE lA COMUnIDAD DE REptIlEs En El COMplEJO CEnAgOsO DE ZApAtOsA, DEpARtAMEntO DEl CEsAR (Colombia). Caldasia 35 (1):103-122
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von El Salvador. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) (No. 487): 120 pp.
  • Reynolds, Robert P., James F. Whatton and Christina A. Gebhard. 2014. Gymnophthalmus speciosus (golden spectacled tegu) predation by great egret. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 128
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rivero, Ramon and Jesus Manzanilla. 2006. Gymnophthalmus speciosus, Bachia heteropa Predation. Herpetological Review 37 (1): 84-85 - get paper here
  • Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J.M.; Rivero, Edwin E. Infante; Barrio-Amorós, César L.; Blanco, Tito R. Bar 2007. New distributional records of amphibians and reptiles from Estado Zulia in the Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 38 (2): 235-237 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L. C. 1939. A description of a new Gymnophthalmus from Guatemala, with notes on other members of the genus. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (409): 1-10
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Taylor, E. H. 1956. A review of the lizards of Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 38 (part 1): 3-322 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini P E. CARVALHO C M D. 1991. Two sibling and sympatric species of Gymnophthalmus in Roraima, Brazil (Sauria: Teiidae). Pap. Avul. Zool.,Sao Paulo 37 (12): 173-226 - get paper here
 
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