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Gymnophthalmus speciosus (HALLOWELL, 1861)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae, Sauria (lizards) 
SubspeciesGymnophthalmus speciosus speciosus (HALLOWELL 1861)
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti (COPE 1876) 
Common NamesGolden Spectacled Tegu 
SynonymBlepharictisis speciosa HALLOWELL 1861: 484
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — STUART 1939: 4
Gymnophthalmus speciosus speciosus — MERTENS 1952: 56
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — PETERS et al. 1970: 138
Gymnophthalmus speciosus - HARDY et al. 1989: 215
Gymnophthalmus speciosus — LINER 1994

Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus birdi STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi — MERTENS 1952: 56
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi — PETERS et al. 1970: 138
Gymnophthalmus speciosus birdi — McCOY 1990

Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti COPE 1876
Epaphelus sumichrasti COPE 1876: 115
Epaphelus sumichrasti — COPE 1879: 270
Gymnophthalmus sumichrasti — GÜNTHER 1885: 29
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti — STUART 1939
Gymnophthalmus speciosus sumichrasti — PETERS et al. 1970: 138 
DistributionS Mexico, W Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela (Carabobo etc.),
Colombia (North Coast of Colombia; Magdalena and Cauca Valley Rivers), Margarita I, Chacachacare Island

Type locality: Nicaragua

birdi: Guatemala; Type locality: Guatemala, Baja Verapaz, Salamá Basin, 2 km S San Gerónimo. Holotype: UMMZ Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Types 
CommentChacachacare Island is off Trinidad. This species apparently has not been found on Trinidad itself. Bisexual species (in contrast to G. underwoodi). 
References
  • Alvarez DEL TORO, M. 1982. Los Reptiles de Chiapas. 3rd ed. México: Tuxtla Gutiérrez, 248 pp.
  • Castro-Herrera, F. & Vargas-Salinas, F. 2008. Anfibios y reptiles en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9 (2): 251 - 277 - get paper here
  • Cole C J. DESSAUER H C. TOWNSEND C R. ARNOLD M G. 1990. Unisexual lizards of the genus Gymnophthalmus (Reptilia Teiidae) in the neotropics: genetics origin and systematics. American Museum Novitates (2994): 1-29. - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.;Townsend, Carol R.;Dessauer, Herbert C.;Hardy, Laurence M. 1989. A lizard foretold Natural History 1989 (5): 12-17
  • Cope, E.D. 1876. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 93-183 [1875] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1879. Eleventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 261-277.
  • Esqueda, Luis Felipe, Enrique La Marca, Marco Natera and Pietro Battiston 2001. Noteworthy reptilian state records and a lizard species new to the herpetofauna of Venezuela. Herpetological Review 32 (3):198-200 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Hallowell, E. 1861. Report upon the Reptilia of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under command of Capt. John Rogers, U. S. N. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12 [1860]: 480 - 510 - get paper here
  • HERNANDEZ-RUZ, EMIL JOSÉ. 2006. GYMNOPHTHALMUS SPECIOSUS (HALLOWELL 1861) (SQUAMATA, GYMNOPHTHALMIDAE) EN COLOMBIA. Caldasia 28 (1): 79-88 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Lee, J. C. 2000. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the Maya world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
  • Lee, J.C. 1996. The amphibians and reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula. Comstock, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 500 pp.
  • Leenders, T. 2004. Der Nationalpark “El Imposible” in El Salvador. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (48): 45-49 - get paper here
  • McCoy, C. J. 1990. Additions to the herpetofauna of Belize, Central America. Carib. J. Sci. 26 (3-4): 164-166
  • Medina-RanGel, Guido Fabián 2013. CAMBIO EstACIOnAl En El UsO DE lOs RECURsOs DE lA COMUnIDAD DE REptIlEs En El COMplEJO CEnAgOsO DE ZApAtOsA, DEpARtAMEntO DEl CEsAR (COlOMBIA). Caldasia 35(1):103-122
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von El Salvador. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) (No. 487): 120 pp.
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rivero, Ramon and Jesus Manzanilla. 2006. Gymnophthalmus speciosus, Bachia heteropa Predation. Herpetological Review 37 (1): 84-85 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L. C. 1939. A description of a new Gymnophthalmus from Guatemala, with notes on other members of the genus. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (409): 1-10
  • Vanzolini P E. CARVALHO C M D. 1991. Two sibling and sympatric species of Gymnophthalmus in Roraima, Brazil (Sauria: Teiidae). Pap. Avul. Zool.,Sao Paulo 37 (12): 173-226 - get paper here
 
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