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Gymnophthalmus underwoodi GRANT, 1958

IUCN Red List - Gymnophthalmus underwoodi - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Sauria (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesUnderwcod's Spectaded Tegu 
SynonymGymnophthalmus underwoodi GRANT 1958: 228
Gymnophthalmus underwoodi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 411
Gymnophthalmus underwoodi — KIZIRIAN & COLE 1999
Gymnophthalmus underwoodi — PIANKA & VITT 2003: 120
Gymnophthalmus cf. underwoodi — OLIVEIRA et al. 2014 
DistributionVenezuela, Brazil (Amazonas), Guyana, Surinam, Barbados, Trinidad, Tobago, Guadeloupe (incl. Les Saintes, Terre-de-Haut), St. Vincent, Martinique, Antigua [HR 30: 110], St. Kitts, Petit Cul-de-sac, Saint-Barthélemy

Type locality: Barbados. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: UIMNH 42334. 
CommentUnisexual and parthenogenetic species. Avila-Pires (1995) and GORZULA & SEÑARIS (1999) treat close relatives of G. underwoodi (cryptus, leucomystax, speciosus, underwoodi) as the “G. underwoodi complex”, which apparently form separate, but “cryptic” species. KIZIRIAN & COLE provide evidence that G. cryptus is the “maternal” species of G. underwoodi. 
EtymologyNamed after Garth Leon Underwood (1919-2002), British herpetologist (obituary in Copeia 2003: 222-225). 
References
  • Avila-Pires,T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Breuil M, Serre-Collet F. 2012. Gymnophthalmus underwoodi (Smooth-scaled Worm Lizard). Distribution. Caribbean Herpetology 30: 1 - get paper here
  • Censky, Ellen J.;Lindsay, Kevin 1997. Geographic Distribution. Gymnophthalmus underwoodi. Herpetological Review 28 (4): 210 - get paper here
  • Cole C J. DESSAUER H C. MARKEZICH A L. 1993. Missing Link Found: The Second Ancestor of Gymnophthalmus underwoodi (Squamata: Teiidae), A South American Unisexual Lizard of Hybrid Origin. American Museum Novitates (3055): 1-13. - get paper here
  • Cole C J. DESSAUER H C. TOWNSEND C R. ARNOLD M G. 1990. Unisexual lizards of the genus Gymnophthalmus (Reptilia Teiidae) in the neotropics: genetics origin and systematics. American Museum Novitates (2994): 1-29. - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.;Townsend, Carol R.;Dessauer, Herbert C.;Hardy, Laurence M. 1989. A lizard foretold. Natural History 1989 (5): 12-17
  • Daltry, Jennifer C. 2007. An introduction to the herpetofauna of Antigua, Barbuda and Redonda, with some conservation recommendations. Applied Herpetology 4 (2): 97-130.
  • Daudin, Jacques; de Silva, Mark. 2007. An annotated checklist of the amphibians and terrestrial reptiles of the Grenadines with notes on their local natural history and conservation. Applied Herpetology 4 (2):163-175
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Grant, C. 1958. A new Gymnophthalmus (Reptilia, Teiidae) from Barbados, B.W.I. Herpetologica 14: 227-228. - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1959. Herpetology of Barbados, B.W.I. Herpetologica 15 (2): 97-101 - get paper here
  • Kizirian, D. A. & Cole, C.J. 1999. Origin of the Unisexual Lizard Gymnophthalmus underwoodi (Gymnophthalmidae) Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Nucleotide Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 11 (3): 394–400 - get paper here
  • Lorvelec, Olivier; Pascal, Michel; Pavis, Claudie; Feldmann, Philippe. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the French West Indies: inventory, threats and conservation. Applied Herpetology 4 (2):131-161
  • Mertens, R. 1972. Herpetofauna tobagana. Stuttgarter Beitr. zur Naturkunde nr. 252 22 pp. - get paper here
  • Oliveira, D.P.; S.M. Souza; L. Frazão; A.P. Almeida; T. Hrbek 2014. Lizards from central Jatapú River, Amazonas, Brazil. Check List 10(1):46-53 - get paper here
  • Orchard K. 2010. Gymnophthalmus underwoodi (Smooth-scaled Worm Lizard). Distribution. Caribbean Herpetology 12: 1 - get paper here
  • Pianka, E.R. & Vitt, L.J. 2003. Lizards - Windows to the Evolution of Diversity. University of California Press, Berkeley, 347 pp. [review in Copeia 2004: 955] - get paper here
  • Questel K., Boggio J. 2012. Gymnophthalmus underwoodi (Smooth-scaled Worm Lizard). Distribution. Caribbean Herpetology 36: 1 - get paper here
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Turk, P. A., N. N. Wyszynski, R. Powell & R. W. Henderson 2010. Population densities and water-loss rates of Gymnophthalmus pleii, Gymnophthalmus underwoodi (Gymnophthalmidae), and Sphaerodactylus fantasticus fuga (Sphaerodactylidae) on Dominica, West Indies. Salamandra 46 (3): 125-130 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini P E. CARVALHO C M D. 1991. Two sibling and sympatric species of Gymnophthalmus in Roraima, Brazil (Sauria: Teiidae). Pap. Avul. Zool.,Sao Paulo 37 (12): 173-226 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P. E. 1976. On the presence of males in Gymnophthalmus underwoodi, a presumed all-female lizard species (Sauria, Teiidae). Pap. Avulsos Zool. 29 (20): 177-179 - get paper here
  • Williamson, K. E. and R. Powell. 2004. Gymnophthalmus underwoodi. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (793): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y.;Vanzolini, P. E.;Rodrigues, M. T.;Carvalho, C. M. de 1995. Chromosome banding patterns in the unisexual microteiid Gymnophthalmus underwoodi and in two related species (Gymnophthalmidae, Sauria). Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 70: 29-34 - get paper here
 
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