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Haitiophis anomalus (PETERS, 1863)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Hispaniolan Brown Racer, Hispaniola Racer 
SynonymZamenis anomalus PETERS 1863: 282
Dromicus (Alsophis) anomalus — FISCHER 1888: 37
Dromicus anomalus — BOULENGER 1894: 125
Alsophis anomalus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 565
Alsophis anomalus — CROTHER 1999
Alsophis anomalus — POWELL et al. 1999
Ocyophis anomalus — ZAHER et al. 2009
Haitiophis anomalus — HEDGES et al. 2009
Caraiba anomala — WALLACH et al. 2014: 149
Haitiophis anomalus — KRYSKO et al. 2015 
DistributionHispaniola (Haiti, W Dominican Republic), Ile de la Tortue, Isla Beata

Type locality: “unbekannt”  
TypesHolotype: ZMB 2269 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): The single species in this genus has 21 midbody scale rows, 207–215 ventrals, 113–130 subcaudals, 2 apical scale pits, 8 upper labials, 10 lower labials, 14 total maxillary teeth, and 18–19 dentary teeth (Table 2). Haitiophis differs from all other genera except Alsophis in its high number (21) of midbody scales, and from Alsophis in its low number of total maxillary teeth (14 versus 18–21) and dentary teeth (18–19 versus 21–26). (HEDGES & VIDAL 2009) 
CommentType species: Zamenis anomalus PETERS 1863 is the type species of the genus Haitiophis HEDGES & VIDAL 2009.

This species can spread its neck, almost like a cobra.

Diet: anoles and other animals. 
EtymologyNot explained by Peters but apparently named after its unusual characteristics.

The genus was named after the Taino word Haiti (meaning high mountains) for the entire island now called Hispaniola and refers to the distribution of the genus. 
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Fischer, J.G. 1888. Über eine Kollektion Reptilien und Amphibien von Hayti. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. 5: 23-45. - get paper here
  • Hedges, S. Blair; Arnaud Couloux; Vidal, Nicolas 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of West Indian racer snakes of the Tribe Alsophiini (Squamata, Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 2067: 1-28 - get paper here
  • KRYSKO, KENNETH L.; DAVID W. STEADMAN, LEROY P. NUÑEZ & DAVID S. LEE 2015. Molecular phylogeny of Caribbean dipsadid (Xenodontinae: Alsophiini) snakes, including identification of the first record from the Cay Sal Bank, The Bahamas. Zootaxa 4028 (3): 441–450 - get paper here
  • Landestoy T, Miguel A. 2017. New localities and prey records for the Hispaniolan Brown Racer (Haitiophis anomalus), with comments on dorsal pattern variation. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 24 (2): 106–111 - get paper here
  • Peters, W. 1863. Über einige neue oder weniger bekannte Schlangenarten des zoologischen Museums zu Berlin. Monatsb. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1863: 272-289.
  • Powell, Robert ; Henderson, Robert W 1998. Alsophis anomalus (Peters) (Hispaniolan racer). Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 659: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Powell, Robert, José A. Ottenwalder, Sixto J. Incháustegui, Robert W. Henderson and Richard E. Glor. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of the Dominican Republic: Species of special concern. Oryx 34 (2): 118-128 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Thomas, Richard; Henderson, Robert W.; Powell, Robert; Rodriquez, Pedro Genaro. 2007. Alsophis anomalus (Hispaniolan Brown Racer). Maximum size. Herpetological Review 38 (3): 338-339 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe Gobbi; Cadle, John E.; Murphy, Robert W.; Moura-Leite, Julio Cesar de; Bonatto, Sandro L 2009. Molecular phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes, Caenophidia) with an emphasis on South American Xenodontines: a revised classification and descriptions of new taxa. Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 49 (11): 115-153 - get paper here
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