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Hebius parallelus (BOULENGER, 1890)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Yunnan Keelback
G: Boulengers Gebirgswassernatter 
SynonymTropidonotus parallelus BOULENGER 1890: 345
Tropidonotus parallelus — BOULENGER 1893: 223
Tropidonotus parallelus — WALL 1908: 316
Natrix parallela — MELL 1931 [1929]
Natrix parallela — SMITH 1943: 288
Amphiesma parallela MALNATE 1960
Natrix parallela — SWAN & LEVITON 1962: 114
Amphiesma parallelum — KRAMER 1977: 728
Paranatrix parallela — MAHENDRA 1984
Tropidonatrix parallela (fide MAHENDRA 1984)
Amphiesma parallela — DAS 1996: 53
Amphiesma parallelum — DAVID, VOGEL & PAUWELS 1998
Amphiesma parallela — SHARMA 2004
Hebius parallelum — GUO et al. 2014
Amphiesma parallelum — WALLACH et al. 2014: 32
Hebius parallelus — DAVID et al. 2021 
DistributionIndia (Sikkim, Nagaland), Nepal (uncertain fide DAVID et al. 2005), Bhutan

Type locality: “Sikkim”  
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1946.1.13.53, adult male 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of the genus Amphiesma characterized by (1) a dark dorsal background in life, dark reddish-brown or probably dark chestnut-brown in life, turning to cream, grey, pinkish-grey, tan, more or less dark greyish-brown or dark yellowish-grey in preservative, (2) on each side, a conspicuous brown or reddish-brown (cream, pale greyish-brown or pale yellowish-brown in preservative) dorsolateral stripe, narrowly edged on its both sides with dark brown or black, extending on the 5th–7th dorsal scale rows from the occipital region along the whole of the body, (3) many dorsal scales longitudinally edged with dark brown, especially on the lower part of the sides, producing a faint reticulation or irregular streaks, (4) upper edge of scales of the 1st dorsal scale row and lower edge of those of 2nd row blackish-brown, producing a very irregular ventrolateral stripe, (5) a rather narrow, irregular, blackish-brown postocular streak extending from behind the eye to the corner of the mouth, usually separated by a wide gap from the dark line edging the lower side of the dorsolateral stripe, (6) no chevron on the upper part of the neck, (7) supralabials mostly uniform, not (or barely) spotted, (8) venter uniformly cream, beige or yellowish-brown, with the outer edge of ventral tips blackish-brown, (9) 21–22 maxillary teeth, the last two moderately enlarged and separated from anterior teeth by a distinct diastema, (10) 19–19–17 dorsal scale rows, (11) dorsal scales moderately to strongly keeled on 2nd–9th dorsal and vertebral scale rows, smooth or at best feebly keeled 1st dorsal row, (12) tail moderate, proportion tail length / total length 0.221–0.252 (0.239–0.252 in males, 0.221–0.249 in females), (13) 160–173 ventrals, (14) 63–77 subcaudals, (15) anal plate divided, (16) usually 2 preoculars, and (17) 1 or 2 anterior temporals [David et al. 2015). 
CommentSynonymy: Natrix clerki WALL 1925: 809 has been removed from the synonymy of A. (Hebius) parallelum by David et al. 2015. Since H. clerki has quite a large range, many reports of H. parallelum may actually represent H. clerki.

Distribution: possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012). Not known from Vietnam according to DAVID et al. (2005). 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Das,I. 1996. Biogeography of the Reptiles of South Asia. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida
  • David P., G. Vogel & Pauwels,O. 1998. Amphiesma optatum (Hu & Djao, 1966) (Serpentes, Colubridae): an addition to the snake fauna of Vietnam, with a list of the species of the genus Amphiesma and a note on its type species. Journal of Taiwan Museum 51 (2): 83-92 - get paper here
  • David, P., Bain, R. H., Nguyen Quang Truong, Orlov, N. L., Vogel, G., Vu Ngoc Thanh & T. Ziegler 2007. A new species of the natricine snake genus Amphiesma from the Indochinese Region (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae). Zootaxa 1462: 41-60 - get paper here
  • David, P.; Vogel, G. & Pauwels, O.S.G. 2005. On the occurrence of Amphiesma bitaeniatum (WALL, 1925) in Vietnam, with preliminary remarks on the group of Amphiesma parallelum (BOULENGER, 1890) (Serpentes, Colubridae, Natriciniae). Salamandra 41 (4): 167-178 - get paper here
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL, TRUONG QUANG NGUYEN, NIKOLAI L. ORLOV, OLIVIER S. G. PAUWELS, ALEXANDRE TEYNIÉ, THOMAS ZIEGLER 2021. A revision of the dark-bellied, stream-dwelling snakes of the genus Hebius (Reptilia: Squamata: Natricidae) with the description of a new species from China, Vietnam and Thailand. Zootaxa 4911: 1–61 - get paper here
  • DAVID, PATRICK; ISHAN AGARWAL, RAMANA ATHREYA, ROSAMMA MATHEW,<br />GERNOT VOGEL & VIRAL K. MISTRY 2015. Revalidation of Natrix clerki Wall, 1925, an overlooked species in the genus Amphiesma Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Squamata: Natricidae). Zootaxa 3919 (2): 375–395 - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • GUO, PENG; FEI ZHU, QIN LIU, LIANG ZHANG, JIAN X. LI, YU Y. HUANG & R. ALEXANDER PYRON 2014. A taxonomic revision of the Asian keelback snakes, genus Amphiesma (Serpentes: Colubridae: Natricinae), with description of a new species. Zootaxa 3873 (4): 425–440 - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Kramer, E. 1977. Zur Schlangenfauna Nepals. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 84 (3): 721-761. - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Mell,R. 1931. List of Chinese snakes. Lingnan Sci. Jour., Canton, 8 [1929]: 199-219.
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Swan, L.W., & Leviton, A.E. 1962. The herpetology of Nepal: a history, check list, and zoogeographical analysis of the herpetofauna. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 32 (6) (4.s.): 103-147. - get paper here
  • Wall, FRANK 1925. Notes on snakes collected in Burma in 1924. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 30 (4): 805-821. - get paper here
  • Wall,F. 1908. Notes on a collection of snakes from the Khasi Hills, Assam. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 18: 312-337 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wangyal, Jigme Tshelthrim 2019. The status of herpetofauna of Bhutan. District Forest Office, District Administration, Trashigang, Bhutan, 20-39 - get paper here
  • Zhao Ermi; Li Shengquan 1987. The herpetofaunal composition and characteristics of Mount Namjagbarwa, Tibet. Acta Herpetologica Sinica 6 (2): 36-42 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • ZHOU, ZHENGYAN; ZHIYONG SUN, SHUO QI, YUYAN LU, ZHITONG LYU, YINGYONG WANG, PIPENG LI, JIANZHANG MA 2019. A new species of the genus Hebius (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae) from Hunan Province, China. Zootaxa 4674 (1): 068–082 - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T., and Quyet, L.K. 2006. A new natricine snake of the genus Amphiesma (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae) from the central Truong Son, Vietnam. Zootaxa 1225: 39-56 - get paper here
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