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Hebius vibakari (BOIE, 1826)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesHebius vibakari danjoensis TORIBA 1986
Hebius vibakari vibakari (BOIE 1826)
Hebius vibakari ruthveni (VAN DENBURGH 1923) 
Common NamesE: Japanese Keelback
Russian: Японский уж
Chinese: 东亚腹链蛇 
SynonymTropidonotus vibakari BOIE 1826: 207
Tropidonotus vibikari [sic] — BOIE 1827: 535
Tropidonotus vibakari — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 595
Tropidonotus martensii HILGENDORF 1876: 30 (nom. subst.)
Tropidonotus vibakari — BOULENGER 1893: 221
Natrix vibakari — STEJNEGER 1907: 266
Hebius vibakari — THOMPSON 1913: 423
Natrix vibakari nikolskii EMELIANOV 1929
Natrix vibakari vibakari — MAKI 1931
Amphiesma vibakari — MALNATE 1960
Amphiesma vibakari vibakari — MALNATE 1962: 258
Amphiesma vibakari — SZCZERBAK 2003
Amphiesma vibakari — ZHAO 2006
Hebius vibakari — GUO et al. 2014
Amphiesma vibakari — WALLACH et al. 2014: 34
Hebius vibakari — MACIAS et al. 2021

Hebius vibakari danjoensis (TORIBA 1986)
Amphiesma vibakari danjoensis TORIBA 1986
Amphiesma vibakari danjoense — GORIS & MAEDA 2004: 211

Hebius vibakari ruthveni (VAN DENBURGH 1923)
Natrix vibakari ruthveni VAN DENBURGH 1923
Natrix vibakari ruthveni — MAKI 1931
Amphiesma vibakari ruthveni — WEBB et al. 1962
Amphiesma vibakari ruthveni — ANANJEVA et al. 2006 
DistributionJapan (Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu)
NE China (from Liaoning northward), Korea,
Russia (Primorskiy and Khabarovskiy territories, Amurskaya Oblast)

danjoensis: Japan (Oshima Island); Type locality: “under a decayed piece of wood at Kochidomari, Oshima Is.”

ruthveni: “ from Quelpart Island, Pusan, Sinuiju, and Possiet
Bay (on the Korean frontier) to Vladivostok and Khabarovka
at the junction of the Ussuri” [SHANNON 1956], Korea; Type locality: Pusan, Korea.

Type locality: Japan  
TypesLectotype: RMNH RENA 1068. Paralectotypes: RMNH RENA.47305-07 (old registration number: 1068), collected by: Ph.P von Siebold, Japan
Holotype: CAS 31487 [ruthveni]
Holotype: OMNH (Osaka R-2098, male [danjoensis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Semi-aquatic snakes with keeled dorsal scales, hemipenes and sulci spermaticus simple; maxillary teeth in continuous series, gradually becoming larger posteriorly in the series or the last two teeth abruptly enlarged; internasals broad anteriorly, nostrils lateral; apical pits present or absent. Color pattern commonly consists of a series dark dots dorsolaterally, forming two longitudinal stripes [from Guo et al. 2014]. 
CommentType species: Tropidonotus vibakari BOIE 1826: 207 is the type species of the genus Hebius Thompson 1913.

Key: Zhou et al. 2019 provide a key to the Hebius species of China.

Comparisons: for a list of characters across the genus Hebius see Ma et al. 2023: 219 (Table 4) 
EtymologyHabius is derived from the Japanese noun “Hebi" (which means snake in Japanese), and the -us ending indicates it is masculine (David et al. 2021). Guo et al. (2014: 438) also stated that Hebius was masculine but these authors variously treated it as neutral (for example: Hebius modestum, p. 437 & 438) or feminine (Hebius modesta, p. 428). 
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