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Heliobolus lugubris (SMITH, 1838)

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Bushveld Lizard, Mourning Racerunner, Black and Yellow Sand Lizard
G: Bushveld-Echse 
SynonymLacerta lugubris SMITH 1838: 93
Eremias dorsalis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 305
Eremias lugubris — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 309
Eremias lugubris — BOULENGER 1887: 84
Lacerta lugubris — BOCAGE 1895: 31
Eremias lugubris — FITZSIMONS & BRAIN 1958
Eremias lugubris — HUEY 1975
Heliobolus lugubris — AUERBACH 1987: 127
Lampreremias lugubris — SZCZERBAK 1989
Heliobolus lugubris — BAUER et al. 1993
Heliobolus lugubris — BATES et al. 2014: 160 
DistributionS/W Angola, W Mozambique, W/S/SE Zimbabwe, Botswana, N South Africa, Namibia

Type locality: "District immediately beyond the northern frontier of the Colony"  
Reproductionmean clutch size: 3.44 +/- 1.42 SD (range: 1-6) [n = 25 females]; neonates were found in January, February, and April. 
TypesType: BMNH 1946.8.6.37-45 (and possibly additional specimens). 
CommentMimicry: Juveniles of this species mimic beetles of the genera Anthia and Thermophilium (SCHMIDT 2004).

Type species: Lacerta lugubris SMITH 1838: 93 is the type species of the genus Heliobolus FITZINGER 1843. 
References
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1985. The reptiles of Gaborone: a guide to the reptiles of the south-eastern hardveld of Botswana. Botswana Book Centre, Gaborone, Botswana 48 pp.
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Bauer, Aaron M.; Branch, William R. & Haacke, Wulf D. 1993. The herpetofauna of the Kamanjab area and adjacent Damaraland, Namibia. Madoqua (Windhoek) 18 (2): 117-145.
  • Boettger, Oskar 1894. Dr. Eduard Fleck's Reiseausbeute aus Südwest-Afrika. II. Vorkommen und Lebensweise der Reptilien und Batrachier. Bericht über die Senckenbergische naturforschende Gesellschaft (Frankfurt), (1893/1894), 88-93. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1887. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) III. Lacertidae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidae, Anelytropsidae, Dibamidae, Chamaeleontidae. London: 575pp. - get paper here
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Broadley, D.G. 1962. On some reptile collections from the North-Western and North-Eastern Districts of Southern Rhodesia 1958-1961, with descriptions of four new lizards. Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. South. Rhodesia 26 (B): 787-843
  • Conradie W, Bills R, and Branch WR. 2016. The herpetofauna of the Cubango, Cuito, and lower Cuando river catchments of south-eastern Angola. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 10(2) [Special Section]: 6–36 - get paper here
  • CONRADIE, W., ENGELBRECHT, H., HERREL, A., MEASEY, G.J., NIELSEN, S.V., V ANHOOYDONCK, B., & TOLLEY, K.A. 2011. Reptile survey of Venetia Limpopo Nature Reserve, Limpopo Province - South Africa. African Herp News (55): 6-12
  • Cooper Jr., W.E. 2005. Duration of movement as a lizard foraging movement variable. Herpetologica 61 (4): 363-372 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol.5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • FitzSimons, V.F. 1943. The lizards of South Africa. Transvaal Museum Memoir No.1 (Pretoria), 528 pp.
  • Fitzsimons, V.F.M.; Brain, C.K. 1958. A Short account of the Reptiles of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. Koedoe, 1(1): 99-104 - get paper here
  • Fuchs, J.; Grohmann, C.; Rödel, M.O. & Penner, J. 2006. Ökologische Untersuchungen an Reptilien einer Dornbuschsavanne in Zentralnamibia - Unwägbarkeiten der Freilandforschung. Elaphe 14 (4): 45-50
  • Goldberg, S.R. 2006. Reproductive cycle of the bushveld lizard Heliobolus lugubris (Squamata: LAcertidae) from southern Africa. Salamandra 42 (2-3): 151-154 - get paper here
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; W.R. Branch 2013. Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist. Journal of Arid Environments 93: 94–115 - get paper here
  • Huey, R. B. 1975. Ecology of lizards in the Kalahari Desert, Africa. Nat. Geographic Soc. Res. Rep. 365-370
  • Huey, Raymond B.;Pianka, Eric R. 1977. Natural selection for juvenile lizards mimicking noxious beetles. Science 195: 201-203 - get paper here
  • Pianka, Eric R. 1971. Lizard species density in the Kalahari Desert. Ecology 52 (6): 1024-1029 - get paper here
  • Pietersen, Darren W.<br />Pietersen, Errol W.<br />Haacke, Wulf D. 2013. First herpetological appraisal of the Parque Nacional de Banhine, Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History 3: 153-163 - get paper here
  • Schleicher, Alfred 2015. Reptilien Namibias. Namibia Scientific  Society, 276 pp.
  • Schmidt, A. 1995. Mimikry zwischen Wüsteneidechsen und Wüstenlaufkäfern. Elaphe 3 (3): 74
  • Schmidt, A. 2004. Mimikry zwischen Eidechsen und Laufkäfern. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 374 pp.
  • Schmidt, A. D. 1997. Zur wachstumsbedingten Entwicklung von Färbung und Biometrie bei Heliobolus lugubris. Sauria 19 (2): 35-45 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Almuth;Gruschwitz, Michael 1997. Mimikry zwischen Wüsteneidechsen und Wüstenlaufkäfern - eine Überlebensstrategie in extremer umwelt. Reptilia (Münster) 2 (6): 22-24 - get paper here
  • Schmidt,A. D. 1997. Zur Verbreitung, Biologie und Ökologie von Heliobolus lugubris A. SMITH 1838 (Sauria: Lacertidae) im südlichen Afrika. Salamandra 33 (4): 269-288 - get paper here
  • Smith, A. 1838. Contributions to the Natural History of Southern Africa. Art. VIII. Mag. Nat. Hist., London, 2 (14): 92-94
  • Szczerbak, Nikolai N. 1989. Catalogue of the African Sand lizards (Reptilia: Sauria: Eremiainae: Lampreremias, Pseuderemias, Taenieremias, Mesalina, Meroles). Herpetozoa 1 (3/4): 119-132. - get paper here
 
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