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Hemachatus haemachatus BONNATERRE, 1790

IUCN Red List - Hemachatus haemachatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: Rinkhals, Ring-necked Spitting Cobra, Ringhals
G: Ringhalskobra 
SynonymVipere haemachate LACÉPÈDE 1789: 115 (nom. reject.)
Coluber haemachates BONNATERRE 1790: 31
Vipera haemachates — LATREILLE 1801
Sepedon haemachates — MERREM 1820
Naia capensis SMITH 1826: 252
Naja haemachates — SCHLEGEL 1837
Sepedon haemachates — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1259
Aspidelaps haemachates — JAN 1859
Sipedon haemachates — LOCKINGTON 1886: 300
Sepedon haemachates — GADOW 1909: 633
Sepedon haemachates — STERNFELD 1910: 34
Sepedon haemachates — DITMARS 1911
Hemachatus haemachatus — STEJNEGER 1936
Hemachatus haemachatus — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Hemachatus haemachatus — WELCH 1994: 63
Hemachatus haemachatus — DOBIEY & VOGEL 2007
Hemachatus haemachatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 324 
DistributionRepublic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Swaziland

Type locality: Japon et Perse Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesTypes: lost (fide Golay et al. 1993) 

Synonymy partly after Golay et al. (1993). SAVAGE (2003) suggested to reject Lacepède’s (1788) “Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupèdes Ovipares” as a non-binominal work (Case 3226; Bull. Zool. Nom. 60 (2)). In 1987 the ICZN ruled accordingly in opinions 1463 and 2104. Thus the author of this species has been changed to BONNATERRE.

Type species: Coluber haemachates BONNATERRE 1790 is the type species of the genus Hemachatus FLEMING 1822.

Relationships: Hemachatus is the sister genus to Naja (Lee et al. 2016). 
  • Alexander, Graham J.; Shirley A. Hanrahan & Duncan Mitchell 2012. Assimilation efficiency and gut passage time in an African elapid snake, Hemachatus haemachatus. African Journal of Herpetology 61 (1): 3-13 - get paper here
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Bonnaterre, P.J. 1789. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature, . . . Erpétologie. Panckoucke, Paris, xxviii+71 pp. (+ plates + index) - get paper here
  • Bonnaterre, P.J. 1790. Ophiologie, in Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Panconoke, Paris, XLIV + 76 pp + 43 plates - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1887. Synopsis of the snakes of South Africa. The Zoologist, London, (3) 11: 171-182
  • Boycott, R.C. 1992. An Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Swaziland. The Conservation Trust of Swaziland - get paper here
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Broadley, D. & Blaylock 2013. The Snakes of Zimbabwe and Botswana. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 387 pp. [book review in Sauria 35 (2): 59 and Copeia 2014: 388] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1962. On some reptile collections from the North-Western and North-Eastern Districts of Southern Rhodesia 1958-1961, with descriptions of four new lizards. Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. South. Rhodesia 26 (B): 787-843
  • Ditmars, Raymond L. 1911. Reptiles of all lands. National Geographic 22(7): 601-633
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 15, 150 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Fleming, John 1822. The Philosophy of Zoology; or a General View of the Structure, Functions, and Classification of Animals. Archibald Constable, Edinburgh, and Hurst, Robinson, London. Two volumes, as follows: vol. I: Iii, 432 pages, 5 plates; vol. II: (1), 618 pages.
  • Gadow, H. 1909. Amphibia and Reptilia. MacMillan, London, 668 pp. - get paper here
  • Golay,P, H.M. SMITH, D.G. BROADLEY, J. R. DIXON, C., MCCARTHY, J. C. RAGE, B. SCHÀTTI & M.TORIBA 1993. Endoglyphs and other major venomous snakes of the world. A checklist. Aire-Genève, Azemiops S. A. Herpetological Data Center: i-xv + 1-478.
  • Haagner, G. V. 1991. Life History Note: Hemachatus haemachatus: Reproduction. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa (39): 26-26 - get paper here
  • Hallermann, J. 2006. Die von LACEPÈDE (1756 - 1825) in die Herpetologie eingeführten Taxa und ihr Schicksal. Sekretär 6 (2): 26-29
  • ICZN 2005. OPINION 2104 (Case 3226). Lacepède, B.G.É. de la V., 1788, Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupèdes Ovipares: rejected as a non-binominal work. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 62 (1): 55 - get paper here
  • Lacepède, B. G. E. 1789. Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupèdes Ovipares et de Serpens. Vol.2. lmprimerie du Roi, Hôtel de Thou, Paris, 671 pp. - get paper here
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Lee, Michael S. Y.; Kate L. Sanders, Benedict King, Alessandro Palci 2016. Diversification rates and phenotypic evolution in venomous snakes (Elapidae) R. Soc. open sci., DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150277 - get paper here
  • Lockington 1886. The form of the pupil in snakes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1886: 300 - get paper here
  • Merrem, B. 1820. Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien I (Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum). J. C. Kriegeri, Marburg, 191 pp.
  • Savage, J.M. 2003. Lacepéde, B.G.É. de la V., 1788, Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupédes Ovipares: proposed rejection as a non-binomial work. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 60 (2): 138 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Dieter 2012. Giftbisse von giftigen und „harmlosen“ Schlangen. Teil 1. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (2): 78-82 - get paper here
  • SMITH, G. 2011. The status of the Rinkhals Hemachatus haemachatus in the city of Cape Town metropolitan area, Western Cape, South Africa. African Herp News (53): 13-16
  • Smith,A. 1826. On the snakes of Southern Africa. Edinburgh New Philos. J. 1: 248-254
  • Spawls, S., Branch, B. 1995. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Blandford, London, 192 pp.
  • Sternfeld, R. 1910. Die Fauna der deutschen Kolonien: Die Schlangen Deutsch-Südwestafrikas. Berlin, R. Friedländer & Sohn, 45 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Winchell, S. 2011. Kobras. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (89): 16-22 - get paper here
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