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Hemibungarus calligaster (WIEGMANN, 1835)

IUCN Red List - Hemibungarus calligaster - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: [Annulated or Barred] Philippine False Coral Snake, Barred Coral Snake 
SynonymElaps calligaster WIEGMANN 1834: 253
? Elaps collaris vel calligaster — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1226
Naja (Hamadryas) fasciata PETERS 1861
Hemibungarus calligaster — PETERS 1862: 637
Hemibungarus calligaster — BOULENGER 1896
Hemibungarus calligaster calligaster — WELCH 1994: 65
Hemibungarus calligaster — SLOWINSKI, BOUNDY & LAWSON 2001
Hemibungarus calligaster calligaster — MCLEOD et al. 2011
Hemibungarus calligaster — WALLACH et al. 2014: 325
Hemibungarus calligaster calligasteri — BINADAY et al. 2017 
DistributionPhilippines (Luzon, Mindoro, Cebu, Negros, Panay)

Type locality: Manila, Luzon Id., Philippines  
TypesHolotype: ZMB 2742 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Maxilla extends forward beyond palatine; venom fangs followed by a diastema and then by one small, solid tooth; head not distinct from neck; loreal absent; nostril between nasals; eye small, pupil round; body cylindrical, elongate; tail short; scales smooth, in 13 or 15 longitudinal rows at midbody; subcaudals paired; venom glands confined to head region; hypapophyses present throughout vertebral column (from Leviton et al. 2014: 494). 

Synonymy: Wallach et al. 2014 list Hemibungarus macclungi TAYLOR 1922 as a synonym of Hemibungarus calligaster. The species is hardly mentioned in the literature, but has been treated as valid species or subspecies by more recent authors.

Subspecies: Calliophis calligaster gemianulis (PETERS 1872) is now treated as a valid species by most recent authors.

Type species: Elaps calligaster WIEGMANN 1834 is the type species of the genus Hemibungarus PETERS 1862. 
EtymologyNamed after the Greek words kallos (beauty, beautiful), and gaster (belly) and refers to the colorful pattern of ventral scales. 
  • Alcala, E.L.; Alcala, A.C. & Dolino, C.N. 2004. Amphibians and Reptiles in tropical rainforest fragments on Negros Island, the Philippines. Env. Cons.31 (3): 254-261 - get paper here
  • Binaday, Jake Wilson B.; Ace Kevin S. Amarga, Ernesto S. Barrameda Jr., and Bobet Jan M. Bonagua 2017. Amphibians and Reptiles in the Vicinity of Bulusan Lake, Bulusan Volcano Natural Park, Sorsogon, Philippines. Philippine Journal of Science 146 (3): 339-351
  • Brown, R. M., Bernstein, J., Fernandez, J., Sanguila, M. B., Meneses, C. G., Siler, C. D., ... & Gaulke, M. 2022. Juvenile colouration, ontogenetic colour shifts, defensive behaviour, and frontal “hooding” threat display in Philippine coral snakes (Elapidae: Hemibungarus). Herpetology Notes 15: 183-192
  • Brown, R.M.; C.H. Oliveros; C.D. Siler; J.B. Fernandez; L.J. Welton; P.A.C. Buenavente; M.L.L. Diesmos; A.C. Diesmos 2012. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island (Philippines), VII: Herpetofauna of Ilocos Norte Province, Northern Cordillera Mountain Range. Check List 8(3):469-490 - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M.; Ferner, John W.; Sison, Rogelio V.; Gonzales, Pedro C.; Kennedy, Robert S. 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of the Zambales Mountains of Luzon Island, Republic of the Philippines. Herpetological Natural History 4 (1): 1-22
  • Brown; Rafe; Cameron Siler, Carl Oliveros, Luke Welton, Ashley Rock, John Swab, Merlijn Van Weerd, Jonah van Beijnen, Dominic Rodriguez, Edmund Jose, Arvin Diesmos 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range. ZooKeys 266 (2013) Special Issue: 1-120<br />doi: 10.3897/zookeys.266.3982 - get paper here
  • CASTOE, Todd A.; ERIC N. SMITH, RAFE M. BROWN and CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2007. Higher-level phylogeny of Asian and American coralsnakes, their placement within the Elapidae (Squamata), and the systematic affinities of the enigmatic Asian coralsnake Hemibungarus calligaster (Wiegmann, 1834). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 151, 809–831 - get paper here
  • DEVAN-SONG, Anne and Rafe M. BROWN 2012. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VI: The Herpetofauna of the Subic Bay Area. Asian Herpetological Research 3 (1): 1–20 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ferner, John W., Rafe M. Brown, Rogelio V. Sison and Robert S. Kennedy 2000. The amphibians and reptiles of Panay Island, Philippines. Asiatic Herpetological Research 9: 1-37 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. 2011. The herpetofauna of Panay Island, Philippines. Edition Chimaira, 390 pp.
  • Gojo-Cruz, Paul Henric P. and Leticia E. Afuang 2018. The Zoogeographic Significance of Caraballo Mountain Range, Luzon Island, Philippines With Focus on the Biogeography of Luzon’s Herpetofauna. Philippine Journal of Science 147 (3): 393-409 - get paper here
  • Kucharzewski, Christoph & Frank Tillack 2007. Redescription of the type specimen of Naja (Hamadryas ?) fasciata Peters, 1861, a junior synonym of Hemibungarus calligaster calligaster (Wiegmann, 1834) (Reptilia, Squamata, Elapidae). Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin 83 (S1): 52-55 - get paper here
  • Leviton, A.E. 1964. Contributions to a review of Philippine snakes. IIl. The genera Maticora and Calliophis. Philippine J. Sci. 92: 523-550 - get paper here
  • Leviton, A.E., R.M. Brown, and C.D. Siler. 2014. The dangerously venomous snakes of the Philippine Archipelago. in The Coral Triangle: The 2011 Hearst Biodiversity Philippine Expedition (G.C. Williams and T.M. Gosliner, eds.). California Academy of Sciences, USA, Pp 473–530
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Cameron D. Siler, Jeffrey L. Weinell, and Rafe M. Brown 2018. Synopsis of the Snakes of the Philippines. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 64 (14): 399-568 - get paper here
  • MCLEOD, David S.; Cameron D. SILER, Arvin C. DIESMOS, Mae L. DIESMOS, Vhon S. GARCIA, Angela O. ARKONCEO, Kelvin L. BALAQUIT, Charlene C. UY, Mariden M. VILLASERAN, Earle C. YARRA, Rafe M. BROWN 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, V: The Herpetofauna of Angat Dam Watershed, Bulacan Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. Asian Herpetological Research 2 (4): 177–198 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1862. Zur craniologischen Unterscheidung der Schlangengattung Elaps und über eine neue Art der Gattung Simotes, S. semicinctus. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1862 (November): 635-638 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1872. Über drei neue Schlangenarten (Calamaria bitorques, Stenognathus brevirostris und Hemibungarus gemianulis) von den Philippinen. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1872 (Juli): 585-587 - get paper here
  • Siler, C. D. & L. J. Welton 2010. Geographic Variation in Philippine Mimicry System: Hypothesized Widespread Coral Snake (Hemibungarus calligaster ) Mimicry by Lepidopteran Larvae (Bracca sp.) on Luzon Island, Philippines. Herpetological Review 41 (4): 427–430. - get paper here
  • Siler, C.D.; L.J. Welton; J.M. Siler; J. Brown; A. Bucol; A.C. Diesmos; R. Brown. 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles, Luzon Island, Aurora Province and Aurora Memorial National Park, Northern Philippines: New island distribution records. Check List 7 (2):182-195 - get paper here
  • Slowinski, Joseph B.; Boundy, Jeff & Lawson,R. 2001. The phylogenetic relationships of Asian coral snakes (Elapidae: Calliophis and Maticora) based on morphological and molecular characters. Herpetologica 57 (2): 233-245 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1922. The snakes of the Philippine Islands. Manila (Bureau of Printing or Science), Monograph 16: 312 pp. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weinell, Jeffrey L.; Errol Hooper, Alan E. Leviton, Rafe M. Brown 2019. Illustrated Key to the Snakes of the Philippines. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 66 (1): 1-49 - get paper here
  • Wiegmann, A. F. A. 1834. In: Dr. F. J. F. Meyen: Beiträge zur Zoologie gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde. Siebente Abhandlung. Amphibien. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina (Halle) 17: 185-268 [1835] - get paper here
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