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Hemidactylus brookii GRAY, 1845

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Common NamesE: Brook's House Gecko, Spotted House Gecko
G: Brooks Halbfingergecko, Hausgecko 
SynonymHemidactylus Brookii GRAY 1845: 153
Gecko tytleri TYTLER 1865: 547
Hemidactylus guineensis PETERS 1868: 640
Hemidactylus affinis STEINDACHNER 1870
Hemidactylus guineensis — BOCAGE 1873: 209
Hemidactylus stellatus BOULENGER 1885: 130
Hemidactylus brookii — BOULENGER 1885: 128
Hemidactylus guineensis — BOULENGER 1885: 131
Hemidacylus [sic] murrayi GLEADOW 1887
Hemidactylus togoensis [WERNER 1897]
Hemidactylus brooki var. togoensis — WERNER 1902
Hemidactylus brookii — DE ROOIJ 1915: 32
Hemidactylus luzonensis TAYLOR 1915
Hemidactylus brookii — SCHMIDT 1919: 446
Hemidactylus neotropicalis SHREVE 1936
Hemidactylus angulatus THYS VAN DER AUDENAERDE 1967
Hemidactylus trokii ELTER 1981 (nomen nudum)
Hemidactylus mahendrai SHUKLA 1983
Hemidactylus brooki — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 413
Hemidactylus brookii — LINER 1994
Hemidactylus mahendrai — RÖSLER 2000
Hemidactylus cf. brookii — MAHONY et al. 2009
Hemidactylus murrayi — LAJMI et al. 2016 
DistributionAfrica: Mauritania, Senegal,Togo, Angola, Cape Verde, Tanzania, Gambia, N Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Mali, Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Sudan (Dagana + Goree Dondo/Cuanza River Atakpame), Western Sahara, Kenya, Comoro Islands (Anjouan)

Asia: India (Himalaya, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Mizoram, Kerala), Bhutan, Thailand (HR 33: 322), Maledives, Malaysian Peninsula (incl. Pulau Pangkor), Hong Kong, Philippine Islands (Luzon etc.),
Sri Lanka, Myanmar (= Burma) (Tsagain), Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Indonesia (Borneo, Flores),

Indian Ocean: Mascarenes: Seychelles.

Americas: Mexico, Honduras (WILSON & MCCRANIE 2002).
Haiti, Antilles, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Port-Au-Prince, Trinidad, Colombia (Valle del Cauca)

mahendrai: India; Type locality: “suberbs [sic] of Kanpur of Uttar Pradesh”

Type locality: “Ada Foah (Guinea)” [= Adafoa, Ghana] [Hemidactylus guineensis PETERS 1868]
Type locality: Borneo [brookii] Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1947.3.6.47 (formerly BM RR1934.9.1.49[.21.a]), designated by Mahony 2011.
Lectotype: ZMB 5740A (designated by BAUER & GÜNTHER 1991) [Hemidactylus guineensis PETERS 1868] 
CommentOriginal description in Amarasinghe et al. 2009.

Synonymy after KLUGE 1993. Hemidactylus brookii haitianus has been raised to species status by POWELL et al. 1996 and subsequently synonymized with H. angulatus. MAHONY (2009) mentions subtriedroides as a synonym of H. brooki but revalidated it in 2011. Hemidactylus tenkatei [LIDTH DE JEUDE 1895] has been removed from the synonymy of brooki. According to RÖSLER & GLAW 2010 H. brooki leightoni is probably a synonym of H. angulatus. Hemidactylus brookii parvimaculatus DERANIYAGALA 1953 has been elevated to full species status. Hemidactylus brookii subtriedroides ANNANDALE 1905 has been synonymized with H. tenkatei by MAHONY 2011. Hemidactylus gleadowi MURRAY 1884: 260, previously a synonym of H. brooki, has been revalidated by MAHONY 2011.
H. mahendrai is not listed in KLUGE 1993. The validity of this species has been questioned by ZUG et al. (2007) who stated that “Shukla’s description (1984) of H. mahendrai is based on a few juvenile and female specimens. Further, the description lacks a statement differentiating H. mahendrai from H. brookii, although diagnostic traits are provided for other Indian Hemidactylus species. Shukla’s description match the traits of female Asian H. brookii, thus we tentatively suggest that mahendrai is a synonym of the latter species.”

Distribution: Not on Borneo fide MALKMUS et al. (2002). Not on Madagascar fide F. GLAW; reports from the Comoros and nearby islands (Rodrigues, Mauritius, Reunion) represent H. parvimaculatus (pers. comm. 21 Feb 2010, 28 Dec 2012). Erroneously recorded from Australia (but may have been introduced there). Loveridge 1947 and Wermuth 1965 erroneously suggested that Adafoa, Ghana = Adafer, Mauritania. African populations of polyspecific complex Hemidactylus brooki are now considered as a valid species, H. angulatus (African countries may need to be deleted from this list). Listed for Honduras by Wilson & McCranie 2002 but not by Solis et al. 2014. McCranie 2015: 365 followed Bauer et al. 2010 stating that “New World populations of the H. brookii-H. angulatus complex should be H. haitianus pending further study”.

Appearance: Highly variable in color pattern.

Similar species: Maybe confused with the broadly sympatric H. mabouia.

Diagnosis. Hemidactylus brookii can be distinguished from all currently described Asian members of Hemidactylus based on the following combination of characters: adult male SVL to 55.8 mm, TrL/SVL 38.5–38.9%; primary postmental shield width is subequal to that of the first infralabials, secondary pair broadly in contact with second infralabials; ear opening large EarL/HL 8.2–11.2%, obliquely oval; 16–19 regular longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles, largest 6–7 times size of surrounding granules; two series of 12–13 precloacal-femoral pores separated medially from each other by a diastema of one non-pore-bearing scale, non-pore-bearing scale <50% the size of pored scales, scale row bordering anteriorly the precloacal-femoral pore series enlarged, ≥ size of pore-bearing scales; 5 lamellae under digit I and 7–8 under digit IV of pes, subdigital lamellae mostly divided on digit IV of manus and pes, enlarged lamellae series under digit IV of pes extend to the base of the digit; tail oval in cross-section without lateral denticulation, tubercles on anterior tail portion form elongated recurved conical spines, subcau- dals completely transverse the tail width from the distal third of original tail; two medium sized conical cloacal spurs [from Mahony 2011]. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet was originally created as a patronym in honour of Sir James Brooke (1803–1868), an acknowledged contributor of specimens to BMNH (Gray 1845). Known as the “Rajah of Sarawak”, for- merly Governor of Sarawak from 1841, and Governor of Labuan and Consul-General to the Sultan of Brunei from 1846 (Schleich & Kästle 2002). 
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