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Hemidactylus romeshkanicus TORKI, MANTHEY & BARTS, 2011

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Higher Taxae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common Names 
SynonymHemidactylus romeshkanicus TORKI, MANTHEY & BARTS 2011
Hemidactylus romeshkanicus — SAFAEI-MAHROO et al. 2015
Hemidactylus kurdicus SAFAEI-MAHROO, GHAFFARI, GHAFOOR & AMINI 2017 
DistributionIran (Lorestan: Zagros Mountains)

Type locality: Western slope of the central Zagros Mountains, Romeshkan region, Lorestan Province, W Iran, elevation 1100 m (33° 16’ N, 47° 35’ E).

kurdicus: NE Iraq (Sulaimani Province: Qara Dagh Mountain);Type locality: Qara-Dagh Mountains (35°14.057’ N, 45°22.871’ E, elevation 1139 m), south west of Qara Dagh village, Sulaimani Province, Northeastern Iraq  
Reproductionoviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: ZMB 75020
Holotype: CAS 262258 (MorphoBank M452298-M452302), collected by Barbod Safaei-Mahroo on 05 September 2016 at 20h45. Paratypes: CAS 262259, MorphoBank M452303-M452307) and (CAS 262260, MorphoBank M452308-M452312), were collected by Barbod Safaei-Mahroo on 05 and 06 September 2016 from 23h30 to 01h00 in the Qara-Dagh Mountains (35°14.588’ N, 45°22.644’ E, elevation 1293 m), south west of Qara Dagh village, Sulaimani Province, Northeastern Iraq [kurdicus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A medium-sized Hemidactylus with a snout-vent length of at least 70 mm; tubercles on all dorsal faces except of the upper arm; back with large, trihedral, sharply keeled tubercles with vertically striated surfaces; tubercles on limbs, neck, head and in the ventrolateral region small to moderately large, conical to keeled; precloacal pores in a chevron-shaped arrangement; no femoral pores; subcaudals enlarged; ventral scales imbricate and denticulate; enlarged scansors beneath fingers and toes, incompletely to fully divided save for the terminal scansor, which is entire.

Diagnosis (kurdicus): A species of the Arid species group of Hemidactylus that may be distinguished from other members of this group by the following morphological characters (based on 3 subadult types): single pair of postmental scales more-or-less in posterior contact with each other; 14–16 longitudinal rows of tubercles that are smallest dorsolaterally; 9–10 subdigital lamellae under first toe of pes, and 13 lamellae under fourth toe of pes.

Comparisons (kurdicus). Safaei-Mahroo et al. compared Hemidactylus kurdicus sp. nov. from the Kurdistan region of Iraq with the Hemidactylus species listed in their Appendix I (Baha el Din 2003, 2005; Busais & Joger 2011; Carranza & Arnold 2012; Garcia-Porta et al. 2016; Moravec et al. 2011; Šmíd et al. 2013, 2015, 2016; Torki 2011; Vasconcelos & Carranza 2014). H. kurdicus sp. nov. is distinguished from all other related Arid clade Hemidactylus species of the Middle East by having a single pair of postmental scales, also it differs from the species below based on the number of lamellae under the first and fourth toes of the pes (1st/ 4th). H. kurdicus sp. nov. has 9–10 lamellae under the first toe and 13 lamellae under the fourth toe of pes, which is more than the following species (mean values reported) H. adensis Šmíd, Moravec, Kratochvíl, Nasher, Mazuch, Gvoždík & Carranza, 2015 (5.3/ 9.3), H. alfarraji Šmíd, Shobrak, Wilms, Joger & Carranza, 2016 (7.1/10.8), H. alkiyumii Carranza & Arnold, 2012 (7/10.8), H. asirensis Šmíd, Shobrak, Wilms, Joger & Carranza, 2016 (6.2/10.1), H. awashensis Šmíd, Moravec, Kratochvíl, Nasher, Mazuch, Gvoždík & Carranza, 2015 (8/11.4), H. dawudazraqi (6.6/10.9), H. endophis Carranza & Arnold, 2012 (6/9), H. festivus Carranza & Arnold, 2012 (6.9/11.2), H. foudaii Baha El Din, 2003 (7/10.3), H. granosus Heyden, 1827 (7.4/11.5), H. hajarensis (8/12.1), H. homoeolepis Blanford, 1881 (5/9.8), H. inexpectatus Carranza & Arnold, 2012 (6/10.5), H. jumailiae Busais & Joger, 2011 (6.9/10.9), H. lavadeserticus (7.4/11.4), H. lemurinus Arnold, 1980 (7/11), H. mandebensis Šmíd, Moravec, Kratochvíl, Nasher, Mazuch, Gvoždík & Carranza, 2015 (5.3/8.3), H. masirahensis Carranza & Arnold, 2012 (6/10), H. mindiae Baha El Din, 2005 (6.2/10), H. minutus Vasconcelos & Carranza, 2014 (4.4/7.9), H. montanus Busais & Joger, 2011 (6.4/10.2), H. paucituberculatus Carranza & Arnold, 2012 (4.9/8.3), H. robustus (6.1/9.8), H. romeshkanicus Torki, 2011 (–/9), H. saba Busais & Joger, 2011 (8.1/11.1), H. shihraensis (6/10), H. sinaitus (5.2/9.7), H. turcicus (6.8/10.2), H. ulii Šmíd, Moravec, Kratochvíl, Gvoždík, Nasher, Busais, Wilms, Shobrak, Carranza, 2013 (5.4/8.6), and H. yerburii Anderson, 1895 (6.9/10.4). 
CommentSynonymy: this is indistinguishable from and likely a synonym of H. persicus (Hosseinzadeh et al. 2014). Hosseinzadeh et al. 2018 also synonymized H. kurdicus with H. romeshkanicus.

Distribution: See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. Not listed for Iraq by Mohammed et al. 2017 (RJH 24: 193).

Abundance: only known from the type specimen (Meiri et al. 2017).

Habitat (kurdicus): oak woodlands covered with grass, hiding inside cracks in the ground or moving among boulders. 
EtymologyThe name kurdicus is derived from the word “Kurd” which refers to the name for the Kurdish nation (Kurdistan Region), the location where the new species was found. 
  • Kamali, Kamran 2020. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Iran. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany ( 574 pp.
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • SAFAEI-MAHROO, BARBOD; HANYEH GHAFFARI, ARAM GHAFOOR & SAYWAN AMINI 2017. A new species of Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkota: Gekkonidae) from Qara Dagh Mountains, Kurdistan Region, with a key to the genus in Iraq. Zootaxa 4363 (3): 377–392 - get paper here
  • ŠMÍD, JIŘÍ; JIŘÍ MORAVEC, PETR KODYM, LUKÁŠ KRATOCHVÍL, SEYYED SAEED HOSSEINIAN YOUSEFKHANI, ESKANDAR RASTEGAR-POUYANI & DANIEL FRYNTA 2014. Annotated checklist and distribution of the lizards of Iran. Zootaxa 3855 (1): 001–097 - get paper here
  • TORKI, F., U, MANTHEY & M. BARTS 2011. Ein neuer Hemidactylus OKEN, 1817 aus der Provinz Lorestan, West-Iran, mit Anmerkungen zu Hemidactylus robustus HEYDEN, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae). Sauria 33 (4): 47-56 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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