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Hemidactylus turcicus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Hemidactylus turcicus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Common NamesE: Mediterranean House Gecko, Turkish Gecko
G: Europäischer Halbfingergecko 
SynonymLacerta turcica LINNAEUS 1758: 202
Lacerta turcica LINNAEUS 1766 (fide SCHLEICH et al.)
Gecus cyanodactylus RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ 1810: 9
Gecko meridionalis RISSO 1826: 87
Hemidactylus robustus HEYDEN 1827
Gecko verruculatus CUVIER 1829: 54
Gecko verruculatus — CUVIER 1831: 146
Gecko verrucosus GRAY 1831: 50 (in error)
Hemidactylus verruculatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 359
Hemidactylus karachiensis MURRAY 1884
Hemidactylus turcicus — BOULENGER 1885: 126
Hemidactylus turcicus — BÖTTGER 1885
Hemidactylus exsul BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 148
Hemidactylus turcicus spinalis BUCHHOLZ 1954
Hemidactylus turcicus — STEBBINS 1985: 113
Hemidactylus robustus — LANZA 1990
Hemidactylus turcicus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 417
Hemidactylus turcicus — KLUGE 1993
Hemidactylus turcicus — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Hemidactylus turcicus — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 236
Hemidactylus turcicus — KÖHLER 2000: 48
Hemidactylus robustus — SINDACO et al. 2007
Hemidactylus robustus — SINDACO et al. 2009
Hemidactylus cf. turcicus — SINDACO et al. 2014 
DistributionPortugal, Spain (introduced to Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, Formentera, Cabrera), France, Italy (incl. Lampedusa island, Elba, Sardinia), Albania, Greece, (incl. Kalymnos, Paros, Antiparos, Despotiko, Lesbos, Chios, Limnos, Samos, Samothraki, Milos: Kimolos, Tinos, Corfu, Cyprus), Malta, costal Croatia (except W Istria), Montenegro, Adriatic islands, Turkey

N Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Israel, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, N Sudan, N Yemen (Socotra Archipelago), Somalia, Eritrea, Kenya,
Iraq, Oman, Saudi Arabia (incl. Farasan Islands)

Pakistan, India,

Balearic Islands (Island Addaya Grande), Mediterranean Sea, Canary Islands (introduced to Gran Canaria and Tenerife),
Red Sea,

Introdued to Panama, Puerto Rico, Belize ? (P. Stafford, pers. comm.)
Introduced to Mexico (Chiapas, Baja California [HR 31: 254], Chihuahua [HR 32: 276], Durango [HR 32: 276], Nuevo Leon, Yucatan; Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Aguascalientes, Coahuila, Oaxaca),
Cuba (introduced),
Introduced to S USA (Louisiana, Alabama, Texas [HR 32: 57], Arizona, Florida (BARBOUR 1936), Arkansas [HR 30: 110; 21: 22], Mississippi [KEISER 1984], South Carolina [HR 31: 53], Georgia [HR 14: 27-28], Kansas [J. Kansas Herpetol. 19: 8] Oklahoma, Virginia, Maryland, California [CROTHER 2000], Nevada [HR 24: 154], New Mexico [HR 23: 62])

parkeri: Zanzibar (introduced?), Eritrea and Dahlak islands, Somalia (LANZA 1983)

Type locality: “Oriente” [= Asian Turkey fide (Mertens and Müller 1928, 1940, KHAN 2005]; Smith and Taylor (1950a,b) restricted the type locality to Cairo, Egypt, without providing any explanation. Schmidt (1953) and Moravec et al. 2011 proposed “Asiatic Turkey” as the type locality. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: Unlocated (Anderson 1999, Baha El Din 2005) 
CommentSynonymy mostly after KLUGE 1993, but also Rösler & Glaw 2010. Lanza (1978) removed Hemidactylus parkeri from the synonymy of H. puccionii. ARNOLD 1980 downgraded Hemidactylus parkeri to Hemidactylus turcicus parkeri. Sindaco (pers. comm.) considers Hemidactylus turcicus parkeri LOVERIDGE 1936 as a synonym of H. robustus. Moravec & Böhme (1997) mentioned Hemidactylus robustus as valid species. See also note in RÖSLER 2000: 88. Van den Berg et al. (2013) and ŠMÍD et al. (2015) rejected the subspecific status of H. t. spinalis. Hemidactylus granosus HEYDEN 1827: 17 has been removed from the synonymy of H. turcicus by ŠMID et al. 2013.

Distribution: Not listed for Somalia by LANZA 1990. Not listed for Belize by KÖHLER (2000). For a discussion of variants living on Socotra see RÖSLER & WRANIK (2004). It is likely that all records of this species in Iran actually are referred to H. robustus (Bauer, et al., 2006; Sindaco and Jeremčenko, 2008). Not in Iran fide Hosseinzadeh et al. 2014. 
EtymologyNamed after the origin of the species in Turkey and surrounding countries. 
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