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Hemiphyllodactylus jnana AGARWAL, KHANDEKAR, GIRI, RAMAKRISHNAN & KARANTH, 2019

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymHemiphyllodactylus jnana AGARWAL, KHANDEKAR, GIRI, RAMAKRISHNAN & KARANTH 2019 
DistributionIndia (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu)

Type locality: National Centre for Biological Sciences campus, Bangalore, Bangalore Urban District, Karnataka, India (13.072° N, 77.581° E, 930 m).  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: NCBS 191 (given as AQ), Adult male, collected 26 October 2015 by Rajesh Sanap and Zeeshan Mirza. Paratypes: AQ 186, AQ 187, Adult males, and adult females (AQ 188– 190, AQ 192–195) have same collection data as holotype; adult female (CESL 014) collected on 10 April 2010 by Saunak Pal and Mrugank Prabhu, from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Bangalore Urban District, Karnataka (13.019° N, 77.567° E, 950 m); adult female (G 470) collected on 30 November 2014 by Aparna Lajmi and Tarun Khichi from near Kolar, Kolar District, Karnataka (13.134° N, 78.09° E, 1020 m) and adult female (CYL 01) collected on 5 December 2016 by R Krishna Chaitanya from Yelagiri, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu (12.576° N, 78.654° E, 960 m). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Hemiphyllodactylus jnana sp. nov. can be distinguished from other members of the genus by a combination of maximum SVL of 39.6 mm; 10–12 chin scales; postmentals not en- larged; 10–12 SL; 9–13 IL; 16–20 dorsal scales and 11–15 ventral scales at mid-body contained within one longitudinal eye diameter; four or five subdigital lamellae on the first finger and toe; lamellar formula of manus and pes 2222; males with nine or ten pored precloacal scales separated by 10–12 unpored scales from a series of six or seven pore-bearing femoral scales on each thigh; no plate-like subcaudals; fine, broken, dark postorbital stripe just extending onto trunk and sometimes extending to tail base; longitudinal markings on nape usually not extending beyond forelimb insertion; dorsal colour pattern of indistinct darker reticulations or longitudinal paravertebral markings, light paravertebral spots present; postsacral marking without distinct light-coloured anteriorly projecting arms and belly stippled with black.

Comparisons: Hemiphyllodactylus jnana sp. nov. can be distinguished from H. aurantiacus by the presence of two lamellae under toes four and five (vs. three lamellae under toes four and five), more precloacal pores in males (mean 9.3, range nine or 10 vs. 6.7, six or seven) and more dorsal scales (mean 18.3, range 16–20 vs. 14.8, 13–16) and ventral scales (mean 13.5, range 11–15 vs. 11.1, 9–13). Hemiphyllodactylus jnana sp. nov. is compared against H. kolliensis sp. nov. and H. arakuensis sp. nov. after their descriptions. Major diagnostic characters across all Indian Hemiphyllodactylus species are scored in Table 1 in Agarwal et al. 2019:  
CommentSynonymy: H. jnana was previously misidentified as H. aurantiacus. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, jnana (jñāna or nyaa-na), is the Kannada word for knowledge, derived from the same root in Pali/ Sanskrit and is used as a noun in apposition. The name is given in honour of two scientific institutions in Bangalore, the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), within the grounds of which the species was first found. The Centre for Ecological Sciences (CES) at IISc and NCBS are at the centre of research in ecology and evolution in India, and the authors have all either worked or studied at these institutions. 
References
  • Agarwal, Ishan; Akshay Khandekar, Varad B. Giri & Uma Ramakrishnan 2019. The hills are alive with geckos! A radiation of a dozen species on sky islands across peninsular India (Squamata: Gekkonidae, Hemiphyllodactylus) with the description of three new species Org Divers Evol - get paper here
 
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